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A polymer electrolyte with high luminous transmittance and low solar throughput: Polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide with In2O3:Sn nanocrystals
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA och Dept of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8279-5163
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2012 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 24, 241902- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemically prepared similar to 13-nm-diameter nanocrystals of In2O3:Sn were included in a polyethyleneiminelithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolyte and yielded high haze-free luminous transmittance and strong near-infrared absorption without deteriorated ionic conductivity. The optical properties could be reconciled with effective medium theory, representing the In2O3:Sn as a free electron plasma with tin ions screened according to the random phase approximation corrected for electron exchange. This type of polymer electrolyte is of large interest for opto-ionic devices such as laminated electrochromic smart windows.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 100, no 24, 241902- p.
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-178647DOI: 10.1063/1.4728994ISI: 000305269200024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-178647DiVA: diva2:542653
Available from: 2012-08-02 Created: 2012-08-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Functionalization of polymer electrolytes for electrochromic windows
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functionalization of polymer electrolytes for electrochromic windows
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Saving energy in buildings is of great importance because about 30 to 40 % of the energy in the world is used in buildings. An electrochromic window (ECW), which makes it possible to regulate the inflow of visible light and solar energy into buildings, is a promising technology providing a reduction in energy consumption in buildings along with indoor comfort. A polymer electrolyte is positioned at the center of multi-layer structure of an ECW and plays a significant role in the working of the ECW.

In this study, polyethyleneimine: lithium (bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (PEI:LiTFSI)-based polymer electrolytes were characterized by using dielectric/impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity recording, optical spectroscopy, and electrochromic measurements.

In the first part of the study, PEI:LiTFSI electrolytes were characterized at various salt concentrations and temperatures. Temperature dependence of viscosity and ionic conductivity of the electrolytes followed Arrhenius behavior. The viscosity was modeled by the Bingham plastic equation. Molar conductivity, glass transition temperature, viscosity, Walden product, and iso-viscosity conductivity analysis showed effects of segmental flexibility, ion pairs, and mobility on the conductivity. A connection between ionic conductivity and ion-pair relaxation was seen by means of (i) the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation, (ii) activation energies of the bulk relaxation, and ionic conduction and (iii) comparing two equivalent circuit models, containing different types of Havriliak-Negami elements, for the bulk response.

In the second part, nanocomposite PEI:LiTFSI electrolytes with SiO2, In2O3, and In2O3:Sn (ITO) were examined. Adding SiO2 to the PEI:LiTFSI enhanced the ionic conductivity by an order of magnitude without any degradation of the optical properties. The effect of segmental flexibility and free ion concentration on the conduction in the presence of SiO2 is discussed. The PEI:LiTFSI:ITO electrolytes had high haze-free luminous transmittance and strong near-infrared absorption without diminished ionic conductivity. Ionic conductivity and optical clarity did not deteriorate for the PEI:LiTFSI:In2O3 and the PEI:LiTFSI:SiO2:ITO electrolytes.

Finally, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) were added to PEI:LiTFSI in order to perform electrochromic measurements. ITO and SiO2 were added to the PEI:LiTFSI:PC:EC and to a proprietary electrolyte. The nanocomposite electrolytes were tested for ECWs with the configuration of the ECWs being plastic/ITO/WO3/polymer electrolyte/NiO (or IrO2)/ITO/plastic. It was seen that adding nanoparticles to polymer electrolytes can improve the coloring/bleaching dynamics of the ECWs.

From this study, we show that nanocomposite polymer electrolytes can add new functionalities as well as enhancement in ECW applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 172 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1057
Keyword
Electrochromism, Polymer electrolytes, PEI, LiTFSI, Nanoparticles, Ionic conductivity, Ion-pair relaxation, Near-infrared absorption
National Category
Nano Technology Composite Science and Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204437 (URN)978-91-554-8714-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-09-20, Polhemsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
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Available from: 2013-08-30 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2014-01-07

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