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Systems for ammonium concentration for further removal in the partial nitritation/anammox technology.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
2012 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Anammox is one of the main processes discovered quite recently for removal of ammonium from wastewater. Anammox process is cost effective, in that low energy and carbon source is needed. Partial nitritation is a perquisite for anammox in wastewater treatment for removal nitrogen and therefore partial nitritation/Anammox technology is studied substantially and applied in full-scale. However, the technology at present can only be used to treat high rich ammonium streams. Application of Anammox for treatment of low ammonium wastewater is not possible because of low yield of Anammox bacteria. The study aimed at devising strategies for using the Anammox technology to treat wastewater streams with low concentration of ammonium nitrogen. The objective was to get systems that could concentrate ammonium from low ammonium waste streams, so as to be able to treat it with partial nitritation/Anammox process. Two methods were used to concentrate ammonium: ion exchange and reverse osmosis. Ion exchange method was used to concentrate UASB effluents of about 24 - 40 mg NH4-N/l to 188 - 367 mg  NH4-N/l respectively which is about 9 times the initial concentrations. At VRF 5, 163 mg  NH4-N/l concentrate was attained from 41.8 mg  NH4-N/l RO feed. Results also showed that concentrates from both methods are able to be treated with partial nitritation/Anammox technology. However it took more than 32 hours to complete treatment of ion exchange concentrates while it took less than 24 hours to finish the partial nitritation/Anammox process of RO concentrates. The longer time taken can be attributed to high salinity of the concentrates which is as a result of NaCl which was used for regeneration in ion exchange process. Both ion exchange and reverse osmosis are viable methods for concentrating ammonium from UASB effluents. Dissolved oxygen was very important factor that influenced the biological process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 28 p.
, TRITA-LWR Degree Project, ISSN 1651-064X ; LWR-EX-12-19
Keyword [en]
Ammonium, Anammox, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, ion-exchange, nitrogen, partial nitritation, regeneration, reverse osmosis
National Category
Water Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-99356OAI: diva2:541979
Educational program
Degree of Master - Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Infrastructure
Available from: 2012-07-26 Created: 2012-07-26 Last updated: 2012-07-26Bibliographically approved

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