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Pressure and temperature effects on the decomposition of arc evaporated Ti0.6Al0.4N coatings during metal cutting
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2286-5588
2012 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 209, 203-207 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The isostructural decomposition of arc evaporated Ti0.6Al0.4N coatings at the elevated temperatures and high stresses occurring during metal cutting have been studied. Comparisons are made with short time (t=10 min) anneals at temperatures typical for steel turning operations. The evolution of the decomposed domain sizes are studied by analytical transmission electron microscopy from samples originating from the rake face. Temperature and force measurements during turning allowed for separation of the effects of the temperature and stresses on domain size evolution. The results show a peak temperature of around 900 °C and a peak normal stress of around 2 GPa during cutting. The overall domain size is larger after cutting compared to the annealed sample at the same temperature. The results suggest that pressures generated during cutting promote coherent isostructural decomposition which is in line with theoretical studies but for considerably higher pressures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 209, 203-207 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78825DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.08.068ISI: 000310656200029OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-78825DiVA: diva2:536088
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) project Designed Multicomponent Coatings, Multifilms||

Available from: 2012-06-21 Created: 2012-06-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. High pressure and high temperature behavior of TiAlN
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High pressure and high temperature behavior of TiAlN
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This licentiate thesis mainly reports about the behavior of arc evaporated TiAlN at high pressures and high temperatures. The extreme conditions have been obtained in metal cutting, multi anvil presses or diamond anvil cells. Several characterization techniques have been used, including x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

Results obtained during metal cutting show that the coatings are subjected to a peak normal stress in the GPa region and temperatures around 900 °C. The samples after metal cutting are shown to have a stronger tendency towards the favorable spinodal decomposition compared to heat treatments at comparable temperatures. We have also shown an increased anisotropy of the spinodally decomposed domains which scales with Al composition and results in different microstructure evolutions. Furthermore, multi anvil press and diamond anvil cell at even higher pressures and temperatures (up to 23 GPa and 2200 °C) also show that the unwanted transformation of cubic AlN into hexagonal AlN is suppressed with an increased pressure and/or temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 46 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1540
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78830 (URN)978-91-7519-863-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-06-13, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 14:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-06-21 Created: 2012-06-21 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved
2. Microstructural evolution of TiAlN hard coatings at elevated pressures and temperatures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural evolution of TiAlN hard coatings at elevated pressures and temperatures
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A typical hard coating on metal cutting inserts used in for example turning, milling or drilling operations is TiAlN. At elevated temperatures, TiAlN exhibits a well characterized spinodal decomposition into coherent cubic TiN and AlN rich domains, which is followed by a transformation from cubic to hexagonal AlN. Using in-situ synchrotron x-ray radiation, the kinetics of the second transformation was investigated in this thesis and the strong temperature dependence on the transformation rate indicated a diffusion based nucleation and growth mechanism. The results gave additional information regarding activation energy of the transformation and the critical wavelength of the cubic domains at the onset of hexagonal AlN. After nucleation and growth, the hexagonal domains showed a striking resemblance with the preexisting cubic AlN microstructure.

During metal cutting, the tool protecting coating is subjected to temperatures of ~900 ºC and pressure levels in the GPa range. The results in this thesis have shown a twofold effect of the pressure on the decomposition steps. Firstly, the spinodal decomposition was promoted by the applied pressure during metal cutting which was shown by comparisons with annealed samples at similar temperatures. Secondly, the detrimental transformation from cubic to hexagonal AlN was shown to be suppressed at elevated hydrostatic pressures. A theoretical pressure/temperature phase diagram, validated with experimental results, also showed suppression of hexagonal AlN by an increased temperature at elevated pressures.

The spinodal decomposition during annealing and metal cutting was in this work also shown to be strongly affected by the elastic anisotropy of TiAlN, where the phase separation was aligned along the elastically softer <100> directions in the crystal. The presence of the anisotropic microstructure enhanced the mechanical properties compared to the isotropic case, mainly due to a shorter distance between the c-AlN and c-TiN domains in the anisotropic case. Further improvement of the metal cutting behavior was realized by depositing individual layers with an alternating bias. The individual bias layers exhibited microstructural differences with different residual stress states. The results of the metal cutting tests showed an enhanced wear resistance in terms of both crater and flank wear compared to coatings deposited with a fixed bias.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 75 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1583
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106507 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-106507 (DOI)978-91-7519-372-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-11, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2014-05-09Bibliographically approved

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