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Logic gates based on ion transistors
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9845-446X
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4791-4785
2012 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 3, no 871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group , 2012. Vol. 3, no 871
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78819DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1869ISI: 000304611400066OAI: diva2:536033
Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||VINNOVA (OBOE - Strategic Research Center for Organic Bioelectronics)||Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation||Royal Swedish Academy of Science||Swedish Research Council|621-2008-2642|Onnesjo Foundation||Available from: 2012-06-21 Created: 2012-06-21 Last updated: 2015-05-06
In thesis
1. Ionic Circuits for Transduction of Electronic Signals into Biological Stimuli
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionic Circuits for Transduction of Electronic Signals into Biological Stimuli
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern electronics has revolutionized the way information is processed and stored in our society. In health care and in biology it is of great interest to utilize technology to regulate physiology and to control the signaling pathways. Therefore, the coupling of electronic signals to biological functions is of great importance to many fields within the life sciences. In addition to the conventional inorganic electronics, a new branch of electronics based on organic materials has emerged during the last three decades. Some of these organic materials are very attractive for interacting with living systems since they are soft, flexible and have benevolent chemical properties.

This thesis is focused on the development of ionic circuits for transduction of electronic signals into biological stimuli. By developing such an intermediate system technology between traditional electronics and biology, signals with chemical specificity may be controlled and addressed electronically. First, a technology is described that enables direct conversion of electronic signals into ionic ones by the use biocompatible conductive polymer electrodes. The ionic bio-signals are transported in lateral channel configurations on plastic chips and precise spatiotemporal delivery of neurotransmitter, to regulate signaling in cultured neuronal cells, is demonstrated. Then, in order to achieve more advanced ionic circuit functionality, ion bipolar junction transistors were developed. These ion transistors comprise three terminals, in which a small ion current through one terminal modulates a larger ion current between the other two terminals. The devices are functional at physiological salt concentrations and are utilized to modulate neurotransmitter delivery to control Ca2+ signaling in neuronal cells. Finally, by integrating two types of transistors into the same chip, complementary NOT and NAND ion logic gates were realized for the first time. Together, the findings presented in this thesis lay the groundwork for more complex ionic circuits, such as matrix addressable delivery circuits, in which dispensing of chemical and biological signals can be directed at high spatiotemporal resolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 60 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1460
National Category
Engineering and Technology
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80390 (URN)978-91-7519-857-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-21, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 11:00 (English)
Available from: 2012-08-24 Created: 2012-08-24 Last updated: 2015-05-06Bibliographically approved

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Tybrandt, KlasForchheimer, RobertBerggren, Magnus
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