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Sulfur metabolism in the extreme acidophile acidithiobacillus caldus
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
2011 (English)In: Frontiers in microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 2, 17- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Given the challenges to life at low pH, an analysis of inorganic sulfur compound (ISC) oxidation was initiated in the chemolithoautotrophic extremophile Acidithiobacillus caldus. A. caldus is able to metabolize elemental sulfur and a broad range of ISCs. It has been implicated in the production of environmentally damaging acidic solutions as well as participating in industrial bioleaching operations where it forms part of microbial consortia used for the recovery of metal ions. Based upon the recently published A. caldus type strain genome sequence, a bioinformatic reconstruction of elemental sulfur and ISC metabolism predicted genes included: sulfide-quinone reductase (sqr), tetrathionate hydrolase (tth), two sox gene clusters potentially involved in thiosulfate oxidation (soxABXYZ), sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor), and various electron transport components. RNA transcript profiles by semi quantitative reverse transcription PCR suggested up-regulation of sox genes in the presence of tetrathionate. Extensive gel based proteomic comparisons of total soluble and membrane enriched protein fractions during growth on elemental sulfur and tetrathionate identified differential protein levels from the two Sox clusters as well as several chaperone and stress proteins up-regulated in the presence of elemental sulfur. Proteomics results also suggested the involvement of heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC) in A. caldus ISC metabolism. A putative new function of Hdr in acidophiles is discussed. Additional proteomic analysis evaluated protein expression differences between cells grown attached to solid, elemental sulfur versus planktonic cells. This study has provided insights into sulfur metabolism of this acidophilic chemolithotroph and gene expression during attachment to solid elemental sulfur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media , 2011. Vol. 2, 17- p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-56532DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00017PubMedID: 21687411OAI: diva2:535574
Available from: 2012-06-20 Created: 2012-06-20 Last updated: 2012-10-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Growth and survival of Acidithiobacilli in Acidic, metal rich environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth and survival of Acidithiobacilli in Acidic, metal rich environments
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Tillväxt och överlevnad av Acidithiobacilli i sura, metallrika miljöer
Abstract [en]

Acidithiobacilli are acidophilic microorganisms that play important roles in many natural processes such as acidification of the environment, influencing metal mobility, and impacting on global sulfur and iron cycles. Due to their distinct metabolic properties they can be applied in the industrial extraction of valuable metals. Acidithiobacilli thrive in an environment which is extremely acidic and usually low in organic carbon but highly polluted with metals. In the quest to gain insight into how these microorganisms can thrive in their extreme environment, relevant facets of metabolism, metal resistance, and pH homeostasis were exploredwith the focus on two model organisms,

Acidithiobacillus caldus and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Understanding these fundamental aspects of an acidophilic lifestyle will help to eventually control detrimental effects on the environment due to acidification and metal pollution as well as improving metal extraction utilizing acidophilic microorganisms.

Bioinformatics can give information about the genetic capacity of an organism. Likewise, ‘omics’ techniques, such as transcriptomics and proteomics to study gene transcription profiles and differentially expressed proteins canyield insights into general responses as well as giving clues regarding specific mechanisms for adaptation to life in extreme environments. This approach was used to investigate the sulfur metabolism of

At. caldus which is an important sulfur oxidizer for industrial metal extraction. It was found that sulfur oxidation pathways were diverse within acidithiobacilli and a model of At. caldus sulfur oxidation was proposed. Furthermore, At. ferrooxidans anaerobic sulfur oxidation coupled to ferric iron reduction was studied which can be of importance for industrial processes. It was shown that anaerobic sulfur oxidation was, at least in part, indirectly coupled to ferric iron reduction via sulfide generation. Moreover, metal toxicity and resistance mechanisms in acidophiles are of major interest. Thus, zinc toxicity in three model organisms, At. caldus, Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, and ‘Ferroplasma acidarmanus’, was explored. An important finding was that the speciation of metals and other chemical influences were of great importance for zinc toxicity in acidophiles. Additionally, the three organisms showed distinct responses to elevated zinc levels. Finally, the response of At. caldus to various suboptimal growth pH was evaluated to gain insights into pH homeostasis mechanisms. The results indicated that At. caldus used acid resistance mechanisms similar to those described for neutrophilic microorganisms. Analysis of fatty acid profiles demonstrated an active modulation of the cyctoplasmic membrane in response to proton concentration, likely resulting in a more rigid membrane at lower pH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2012. 70 p.
National Category
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60439 (URN)978-91-7459-474-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-23, NUS - Norrlands universitetssjukhus, 933 Unod B9, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00
Available from: 2012-11-02 Created: 2012-10-11 Last updated: 2012-10-23Bibliographically approved

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