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Optimering och effektivisering av biogasprocessen vid biogasanläggningen Kungsängens gård
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2012 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Optimization and potentiation of the biogasprocess at the biogas plant Kungsängens gård (English)
Abstract [sv]

Under år 2008 användes globalt en energimängd motsvarande nästan 144 000 TWh ochav dessa stod fossila bränslen för 81 %. I Sverige uppgick energitillförseln under år2010 till totalt 616 TWh och av detta stod råolja/oljeprodukter för 30,4 %. Vidförbränning av fossila bränslen frigörs koldioxid, en gas som bidrar till att förstärkaväxthuseffekten. År 2000 uppmättes halten av koldioxid i atmosfären till 370 ppmv ochför att den globala temperaturen inte ska öka med mer än 2°C bör halten stanna på 450ppmv innan år 2100. Ett sätt att minska andelen av fossila bränslen är att öka andelen avförnybara energikällor, som t.ex. biogas, som i Sverige uppskattas kunna ge enenergimängd motsvarande 10-15 TWh/år i framtiden.Vid biogasanläggningen Kungsängens gård, Uppsala, samrötas slakteriavfall samtorganiskt avfall från hushåll och livsmedelsindustri i en termofil rötningsprocess. Underår 2011 producerades ca 3 400 000 Nm3 biogas och den största andelen uppgraderadestill fordonsgas. Behovet fordonsgas i Uppsala ökar och i detta examensarbete utreddestvå sätt att effektivisera processen och öka gasproduktionen. Dels undersöktes om enökad belastning skulle ge en ökad biogasproduktion utan att riskera processensstabilitet. Detta gjordes i två labskalereaktorer där belastningen ökades gradvis i denena. Dels studerades möjligheten att minska energiförbrukningen på anläggningengenom att byta hygieniseringsmetod. Innan substratet matas in i rötkamrarna måste dethygieniseras, vilket i dagsläget görs genom pastörisering (upphettning till 70oC under entimme). Då detta är väldigt energikrävande finns det planer på att byta metod ochistället låta substratet hygieniseras i rötkamrarna (52°C) i minst 10 timmar. Det är dockviktigt att beakta huruvida metanpotentialen för pastöriserat och opastöriserat materialskiljer sig åt, varför detta utreddes i sk satsvisa utrötningsförsök.Genom hela belastningsökningen (från 3 till 6 kg VS/m3,d) ökade biogasproduktionenoch vid den högsta belastningen var ökningen 100 % jämfört med dagens nivå. Andraviktiga processparametrar, så som specifik gasproduktion, kvoten CO2/CH4, pH,halterna av fettsyror och utrötningsgraden, låg på en jämn nivå under försöket, vilkettyder på att processen var stabil trots den ökade belastningen. Utrötningsförsöket visadeatt pastöriseringen inte hade någon effekt på metanproduktionen, troligtvis eftersomsubstratet redan var lättnedbrytbart. Beräkningen av energiförbrukning visade attenergianvändningen skulle minska med ca 33 % vid byte av hygieniseringsmetod.

Abstract [en]

During 2008 an amount of energy equivalent to almost 144,000 TWh was used globally,of which fossil fuels accounted for 81 %. In Sweden, during 2010, an amount of energyequivalent to 616 TWh was used, of which crude oil/oil products accounted for 30.4 %.Carbon dioxide, a gas that contributes to the global warming, is produced during thecombustion of fossil fuels. In 2000 the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere wasmeasured to be 370 ppmv and if the global temperature is not to increase with morethan 2°C, the levels should stay at 450 ppmv by 2100. One way of decreasing the use offossil fuels is to increase the use of renewable energy, such as biogas. In the futurebiogas can, approx., provide with energy equivalent to 10-15 TWh/year in Sweden.At the biogas plant Kungsängens gård, in Uppsala, slaughterhouse byproducts are codigestedwith source separated household waste and waste from the food processingindustry in a thermophilic process. During the year 2011 approximately 3,400,000 Nm3of biogas was produced at the plant, of which most was upgraded to vehicle fuel. Theconsumption of vehicle fuel is increasing in Uppsala and thus there is a need forincreased biogas production. The aim of this master thesis was to investigate two waysto increase the efficiency and consequently the gas production at the biogas plant atKungsängens gård. Firstly, it was studied if an increased organic loading rate (OLR)would give an increased biogas production, without disturbing the process. This wasdone in two lab scale reactors, where the load was increased gradually in one. Secondly,the possibility to decrease the energy consumption by means of a change of sanitizationmethod was studied. The substrate has to be sanitized before it is fed to the digesters,currently this is done by pasteurization. This process is, however, energy-demandingand there are plans to change the method of sanitization. It is, however, important toconsider whether the methane potential differs for the pasteurized and the nonpasteurizedsubstrate. This was studied in small scale biogas batch reactors.Through all stages of increased OLR (from 3 to 6 kg VS/m3, d) the biogas productionincreased, and at the largest load the increase was 100 % compared to the present level.Other important process parameters, such as specific methane production, CO2/CH4-ratio, pH, levels of fatty acids and degree of digestion, were at regular levels and thisindicates that the process was maintained stable in spite of the increased load. The testin the small scale biogas batch reactors showed that pasteurization of the substrate hadno effect on the methane potential, probably due to that the substrate already is readilybiodegradable. The estimation of the energy consumption showed that the use of energyshould decrease with approx. 33 % if the sanitization was replaced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 57 p.
Series
UPTEC W, ISSN 1401-5765 ; 12017
Keyword [en]
biogas, methane potential, thermophilic, food waste, increased organic loading rate and pasteurization.
Keyword [sv]
biogas, metangaspotential, termofilt, matavfall, belastningsökning och pastörisering.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-176334OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-176334DiVA: diva2:535373
Educational program
Master Programme in Environmental and Water Engineering
Uppsok
Technology
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2012-10-05 Created: 2012-06-18 Last updated: 2012-10-05Bibliographically approved

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