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The impact of the shape factor on final energy demand in residential buildings in nordic climates
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development. (Ekoteknik)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development. (Ekoteknik)
SWECO, Vastra Norrlandsgatan 10 B, Umea, SE 901 03, Sweden.
2012 (English)In: World Renewable Energy Forum, WREF 2012, Including World Renewable Energy Congress XII and Colorado Renewable Energy Society (CRES) Annual Conference, 2012, 4260-4264 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The shape factor of a building is the ratio between its envelope area and its volume. Buildings with a higher shape factor have a larger surface area in proportion to their volume, which results in larger heat losses in cold climates. This study analyzes the impact of the shape factor on the final energy demand by using five existing apartment buildings with different values of shape factor. Each building was simulated for twelve different scenarios: three thermal envelope scenarios and four climate zones. The differences in shape factor between the buildings were found to have a large impact and accounted for 10%-20% of their final energy demand. The impact of the shape factor was reduced with warmer climates and ceased with average outdoor temperature 11ºC-14ºC depending on the thermal envelope performance of the buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. 4260-4264 p.
Keyword [en]
Apartment buildings; Cold climate; Final energy; Outdoor temperature; Residential building; Shape factor; Surface area
National Category
Building Technologies Architectural Engineering Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16426Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84871535260ISBN: 978-162276092-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-16426DiVA: diva2:532979
Conference
World Renewable Energy Forum, WREF 2012, Including World Renewable Energy Congress XII and Colorado Renewable Energy Society (CRES) Annual Conference;Denver, CO;13 May 2012through17 May 2012;Code94564
Projects
Hållbara utvecklingsprocesser
Available from: 2012-06-12 Created: 2012-06-12 Last updated: 2016-03-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy efficiency of new residential buildings in sweden: Design and Modelling Aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency of new residential buildings in sweden: Design and Modelling Aspects
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in newly constructed buildings

In this thesis, criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied, several design aspects of residential buildings are examined, and possible further analysis from an energy system perspective discussed. Three case studies of existing residential buildings were analysed, including one detached house and multi-storey apartment buildings. The analysis was based on both energy simulations and measurements in residential buildings.

The results show that the calculated specific final energy demand of residential buildings, before they are built, is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer society toward lower final energy use in the building sector. One of the reasons is assumptions made during calculation before the buildings is built. Another reason is the interior building design. A design that includes relatively large areas of heated corridors, service and storage rooms will lower the specific final energy demand without improving the building energy efficiency, which might increase both the total final energy demand and the use of construction materials in the building sector.

Efficient thermal envelopes are essential in construction of energy efficient buildings, which include the thermal resistance and also the shape of the building. The shape factor of buildings was found to be an important variable for heat demand in buildings located in temperate and colder climates, particularly if they are exposed to strong winds.

From a system perspective, energy efficiency measures and the performance of the end use heating technology in buildings should be evaluated together with the energy supply system, including the dynamic interaction between them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2014. 46 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 105
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21933 (URN)978-91-87557-10-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-05-05, Q 221, Akademigatan 1, Östersund, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-05-16 Created: 2014-05-13 Last updated: 2014-07-25Bibliographically approved
2. Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mittuniversitetet, 2016. 62 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 238
National Category
Energy Systems Architectural Engineering Building Technologies Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27175 (URN)978-91-88025-52-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-02-23, G1352, Östersund, 11:04 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-04 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2016-03-23Bibliographically approved

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Scopushttp://ases.conference-services.net/resources/252/2859/pdf/SOLAR2012_0428_full%20paper.pdf

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