Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
The Effect of Steroid Hormones in the Female Brain During Different Reproductive States
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from depression and anxiety disorders and have an increased risk of onset during periods associated with hormonal changes, such as the postpartum period and the menopausal transition. Furthermore, some women seem more sensitive to normal hormone fluctuations across the menstrual cycle, since approximately 3-5% suffers from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Why these disorders are so common in women has not been established but there is a probable involvement of the ovarian hormones.

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of the ovarian hormones on the female brain during different reproductive states using psychological tests known to affect brain activity in different ways.

Paper one examined the effect of the ovarian hormones on prepulse inhibition (PPI) on the acoustic startle response (ASR) and comprised cycling women and postmenopausal women. The cycling women had lower levels of PPI compared to postmenopausal women and postmenopausal women with moderate estradiol levels had lower PPI compared to postmenopausal women with low estradiol levels.

Paper two examined the effect of anticipation and affective modulation on the ASR in women with PMDD and healthy controls. Women with PMDD have an increased modulation during anticipation of affective pictures compared to healthy controls during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

Paper three examined brain activity during response inhibition among women with PMDD and healthy controls by the use of a Go/NoGo task and fMRI. Women with PMDD displayed a decreased activity in the left insula during follicular phase and an increased activity during the luteal phase compared to controls.

Paper four comprised women in the postpartum period and non-pregnant controls to examine brain activity during response inhibition. While this study revealed decreased activity at 4 weeks postpartum compared to 48 hours postpartum we cannot ascertain the role of the ovarian steroids, since none of the significant brain areas correlated with ovarian steroid or neurosteroid serum concentrations.

The results of this thesis demonstrate that the ovarian hormones, or at least various hormonal states, have a probable impact on how the female brain works.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 85 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 787
Keyword [en]
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Postpartum, Estradiol, Progesterone, Menstrual cycle, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Response inhibition, Prepulse inhibition, Startle response
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-175409ISBN: 978-91-554-8402-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-175409DiVA: diva2:531388
Public defence
2012-09-14, Gustavianum, Auditorium Minus, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-08-22 Created: 2012-06-06 Last updated: 2013-07-22
List of papers
1. Lower levels of prepulse inhibition in luteal phase cycling women in comparison with postmenopausal women
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower levels of prepulse inhibition in luteal phase cycling women in comparison with postmenopausal women
2010 (English)In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 35, no 3, 422-429 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Menopause denotes the end of the reproductive period in a woman's life and is characterized by gradually declining plasma levels of ovarian hormones. Mounting evidence suggests that prepulse inhibition (PPI) is sensitive to fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone. Deficits in PPI are associated with conditions characterized by increased levels of ovarian steroids, such as the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and the third trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study was to further elucidate ovarian steroid-related effects on PPI by examining 43 women with regular menstrual cycles, 20 healthy postmenopausal women without hormone replacement treatment (HRT) and 21 healthy postmenopausal women with ongoing estradiol-only or estradiol and progesterone therapy (EPT). Cycling women were tested during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle while postmenopausal women were tested on any arbitrary day. The PPI was measured by electromyography. Cycling women exhibited lower levels of PPI than postmenopausal women (p<0.05). There were no differences in PPI between postmenopausal HRT users and non-users. However, postmenopausal women with estradiol serum concentrations in the cycling range had lower PPI than postmenopausal women with low estradiol concentrations (groupxPPI interaction, p<0.05). In conclusion, the results further suggest a role for the ovarian steroids in PPI regulation as PPI is increased in postmenopausal women in comparison to regularly menstruating women examined during the late luteal phase. Furthermore, postmenopausal women with estradiol levels in the cycling range had lower PPI than postmenopausal women with low estradiol levels.

Keyword
Estradiol, Hormone replacement therapy, Menopause, Prepulse inhibition, Progesterone, Startle response
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-124853 (URN)10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.08.004 (DOI)000275700000010 ()19735984 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder have increased startle modulation during anticipation in the late luteal phase period in comparison to control subjects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder have increased startle modulation during anticipation in the late luteal phase period in comparison to control subjects
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 36, no 8, 1184-1192 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a withdrawal reflex to sudden or noxious auditory stimuli and, most importantly, an unbiased measure of emotional processing of appetitive and aversive stimuli. By exposing subjects to fearful situations, such as aversive pictures, the ASR may be enhanced, suggesting that amygdala modulates the startle circuit during threat situations. As one previous study, investigating affective modulation of the ASR in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), discovered no difference during picture viewing it is possible that the mood changes observed in PMDD relate to anxious anticipation rather than to direct stimulus responding. Hence we sought to examine the effects of PMDD on picture anticipation and picture response.

Sixteen PMDD patients and 16 controls watched slide shows containing pleasant and unpleasant pictures and positive and negative anticipation stimuli during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Simultaneously, semi-randomized startle probes (105dB) were delivered and the ASR was assessed with electromyography.

Compared with control subjects, PMDD patients displayed an enhanced startle modulation by positive and negative anticipation stimuli in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. This finding was mainly driven by increased modulation in the luteal phase in comparison to the follicular phase among PMDD patients but also by an increased modulation in patients compared to controls during luteal phase. This suggests that the neural circuits underlying response to emotional anticipation are more sensitive during this period and emphasize the need of examining the neural correlates of anticipatory processes in women with PMDD.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-152022 (URN)10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.02.011 (DOI)000295072300009 ()21435793 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3.
The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
4. Prefrontal activity during response inhibition decreases over time in postpartum women
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prefrontal activity during response inhibition decreases over time in postpartum women
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-175276 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-04 Created: 2012-06-04 Last updated: 2015-06-11

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(8582 kB)699 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 8582 kBChecksum SHA-512
b2340df63784429539b4004b33c34f39101bff146c5cd9f70b4f6f34d2f4aceae3c75b5567824b89c42a3a4846d2274518da23fc179d54af8f5eaaf58566a540
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Buy this publication >>

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bannbers, Elin
By organisation
Department of Women's and Children's Health
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 699 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 683 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf