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Ion diode logics for pH control
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0302-226X
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9845-446X
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5154-0291
2012 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 12, no 14, 2507-2513 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronic control over the generation, transport, and delivery of ions is useful in order to regulate reactions, functions, and processes in various chemical and biological systems. Different kinds of ion diodes and transistors that exhibit non-linear current versus voltage characteristics have been explored to generate chemical gradients and signals. Bipolar membranes (BMs) exhibit both ion current rectification and water splitting and are thus suitable as ion diodes for the regulation of pH. To date, fast switching ion diodes have been difficult to realize due to accumulation of ions inside the device structure at forward bias – charges that take a long time to deplete at reverse bias. Water splitting occurs at elevated reverse voltage bias and is a feature that renders high ion current rectification impossible. This makes integration of ion diodes in circuits difficult. Here, we report three different designs of micro-fabricated ion bipolar membrane diodes (IBMDs). The first two designs consist of single BM configurations, and are capable of either splitting water or providing high current rectification. In the third design, water-splitting BMs and a highly-rectifying BM are connected in series, thus suppressing accumulation of ions. The resulting IBMD shows less hysteresis, faster off-switching, and also a high ion current rectification ratio as compared to the single BM devices. Further, the IBMD was integrated in a diode-based AND gate, which is capable of controlling delivery of hydroxide ions into a receiving reservoir.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2012. Vol. 12, no 14, 2507-2513 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78002DOI: 10.1039/C2LC40093FISI: 000305532600009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-78002DiVA: diva2:530662
Available from: 2012-06-04 Created: 2012-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07
In thesis
1. Monopolar and Bipolar Membranes in Organic Bioelectronic Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monopolar and Bipolar Membranes in Organic Bioelectronic Devices
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the 1970s it was discovered that organic polymers, a class of materials otherwise best know as insulating plastics, could be made electronically conductive. As an alternative to silicon semiconductors, organic polymers offer many novel features, characteristics, and opportunities, such as producing electronics at low costs using printing techniques, using organic chemistry to tune optical and electronic properties, and mechanical flexibility. The conducting organic polymers have been used in a vast array of devices, exemplified by organic transistors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Due to their softness, biocompatibility, and combined electronic and ionic transport, organic electronic materials are also well suited as the active material in bioelectronic applications, a scientific and engineering area in which electronics interface with biology. The coupling of ions and electrons is especially interesting, as ions serve as signal carriers in all living organisms, thus offering a direct translation of electronic and ionic signals. To further enable complex control of ionic fluxes, organic electronic materials can be integrated with various ionic components, such as ion-conducting diodes and transistors.

This thesis reports a background to the field of organic bioelectronic and ionic devices, and also presents the integration of ionic functions into organic bioelectronic devices. First, an electrophoretic drug delivery device is presented, capable of delivering ions at high spatiotemporal resolution. The device, called the organic electronic ion pump, is used to electronically control amyloid-like aggregation kinetics and morphology of peptides, and offers an interesting method for studying amyloids in vitro. Second, various ion-conducting diodes based on bipolar membranes are described. These diodes show high rectification ratio, i.e. conduct ions better for positive than for negative applied voltage. Simple ion diode based circuits, such as an AND gate and a full-wave rectifier, are also reported. The AND gate is intended as an addressable pH pixel to regulate for example amyloid aggregation, while the full-wave rectifier decouples the electrochemical capacity of an electrode from the amount of ionic charge it can generate. Third, an ion transistor, also based on bipolar membranes, is presented. This transistor can amplify and control ionic currents, and is suitable for building complex ionic logic circuits. Together, these results provide a basic toolbox of ionic components that is suitable for building more complex and/or implantable organic bioelectronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 76 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1620
Keyword
bioelectronics, ionic, ion transport;bipolar membrane, conjugated polymer, amyloid, self-assembly
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110406 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-110406 (DOI)978-91-7519-244-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-10, K2, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings Universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-10 Created: 2014-09-10 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved

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