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Jämställdhet, maskulinitet och (o)privilegierade subjektspositioner: En intervjustudie om diskurser kring jämställdhet, "den nye mannen" och "andra män"
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
2012 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Föreliggande uppsats utgår från tidigare forskning som hävdar att jämställdhetsdiskursen i Sverige bygger på ett vitt, heterosexuellt, medelklassideal som underordnar andra maskuliniteter. Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka huruvida jämställdhetsdiskursens ovan nämnda exkluderingar samt maskulinitetsdiskurser som till exempel ”den nye mannen” kan spåras i mäns artikuleringar av diskurser kring maskulinitet och jämställdhet och hur olika subjektspositioner samt hierarkier begripliggörs och (re)produceras i denna process.

Det teoretiska ramverket utgörs av poststrukturalistisk teori kring diskurser, subjektspositioner och ”görandet” av genus och andra sociala kategorier. Dessa kategorier ses ur ett intersektionellt perspektiv som sammanvävda. Uppsatsen försöker vidare förena denna poststrukturalistiska ansats med Connells teori om hegemonisk maskulinitet.

Det empiriska materialet består av enskilda intervjuer samt fokusgruppintervjuer utförda i tre olika empiriska kontexter där individer i olika sexuella, etniska och klassmässiga subjektspositioner med olika grader av privilegiering i relation till jämställdhetsdiskursen befinner sig.

Resultatet visar att den maskulinitetsdiskurs som artikulerades i samtliga kontexter låg nära diskursen kring ”den nye mannen”; ett mer jämställt, eller i alla fall barnorienterat, maskulinitetsideal. Jämställdhet artikulerades även någorlunda lika över kontexterna som en konsensusbaserad särartsdiskurs.  Det som däremot skilde kontexterna och intervjupersonerna åt var deras etniska, klassmässiga och sexuella subjektspositioner som relaterade till de hegemoniska diskurserna kring jämställdhet och maskulinitet på o(jäm)lika sätt. Personerna i de muslimska och homosexuella subjektspositionerna gjorde på olika sätt motstånd mot den underordning som de placerades i genom dessa subjektspositioners underordade relation till ”den nye mannen”. De förhöll sig därmed något mer distanserat till denna diskurs samt jämställdhetsdiskursen. I kontexten där intervjupersonernas subjektspositioner i större utsträckning sammanföll med ”den nye mannen” artikulerades denna diskurs tydligare. Exempelvis artikulerade man barnorientering, snarare än ett intresse för jämställdhet i sig. I samtliga kontexter uppmärksammade eller problematiserade man sällan sina egna privilegier, men det skedde på olika sätt ett skillnadsskapande gentemot ”andra män” och kvinnor.

Abstract [en]

This master thesis takes its departure in previous research which argues that the Swedish discourse of gender equality and its gender equal masculine subject “the new man” is built upon a white, heterosexual, middle class norm that excludes and subordinates other masculinities. The thesis aims at investigating whether the above mentioned exclusions in the Swedish discourse of gender equality and masculinity discourses such as “the new man” are traceable in men´s articulations of discourses regarding gender equality and masculinity, and how different subject positions and hierarchies are negotiated and reproduced in this process.

The theoretical framework is a post-structural theory inspired by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffes theory of discourses, subject positions and the “doing” of gender and other social categories such as class and ethnicity, categories that from an intersectional perspective are viewed as analytically inseparable. The thesis also seeks to combine the post-structural perspective with R.W. Connells theory of hegemonic masculinity.

The empirical material consists of single and focus groups interviews generated in three different contexts in which individuals located in different sexual and ethnic subject positions with different degrees of privilege in relation to the discourse of gender equality.

The results show that the masculinity discourse that was articulated in all three contexts was the discourse of “the new man”; a more gender equal, or at least children-oriented, masculine ideal. The articulations of gender equality were also similar in the different contexts; a consensus based discourse of gender equality in which men and women were viewed as different but complementary.

What distinguished the contexts was the interview person’s sexual and ethnic subject positions which related to the hegemonic discourses of gender equality and masculinity in different, unequal ways. The interview person´s in the Muslim and homosexual subject positions resisted the subordination these positions meant in relation to the discourse of “the new (gender equal) man”. This also meant that these persons had a more distanced relationship to this discourse and the discourse of gender equality. In the context where the interview person’s subject positions to a greater extent coincided with “the new man”, this discourse was also articulated in a less problematic way. An orientation towards taking care of children was for example more common than an interest in gender equality for its own sake. In all three context one´s own privileges were seldom acknowledged, and there were different processes of creating difference and hierarchies towards both women and “other men”.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 72 p.
Keyword [en]
The Swedish discourse of gender equality, “the new man”, hegemonic masculinity, privileged subject positions, subordinated subject positions, intersectionality, sexuality, ethnicity.
Keyword [sv]
Jämställdhetsdiskursen, "den nye mannen", hegemonisk maskulinitet, privilegierade subjektspositioner, underordnade subjektspositioner, intersektionalitet, sexualitet, etnicitet
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-175004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-175004DiVA: diva2:529755
Educational program
Master Programme in Social Sciences
Uppsok
Social and Behavioural Science, Law
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2012-06-11 Created: 2012-05-31 Last updated: 2012-06-11Bibliographically approved

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