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Thin Film Synthesis and Characterization of New MAX Phase Alloys
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this Thesis is synthesis and characterization of new MAX phase alloys (M = early transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C or N) based on incorporation of M and X elements previously not used in any known MAX phases. This is motivated by a search for optimized and unique materials properties, such as different magnetic states.

Two synthesis routes have been used to attain Ti2AlC1-xOx: deposition of Ti2AlCy under high vacuum conditions with residual gas acting as O source, and solid-state reactions following deposition of understoichiometric TiCy on Al2O3. Detailed local quantification by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) shows up to 13 at.% O within high quality MAX phase structure. According to previous theoretical work, the range of experimentally obtained O content is enough to observe drastic changes in the materials anisotropic electronic properties. Calculations on effect of substitutional O on shear deformation have also been performed.

In a recent theoretical study by Dahlqvist et al., (Cr,Mn)2AlC has been predicted as a new stable magnetic nanoscale laminate. Inspired by this work, thin films of (Cr,Mn)2AlC, as well as of a neighboring system (Cr,Mn)2GeC, have been synthesized by magnetron sputtering. Incorporation of 8 and 12.5 at.% of Mn, respectively, has been detected by analytical TEM including EELS and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The total saturation moment of 0.36μB per Mn atom at 50 K has been measured by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) for a (Cr,Mn)2GeC sample, providing the first experimental evidence of a magnetic MAX phase.

The experimental results obtained in this Thesis provide a base for expanding the MAX phase definition and materials characteristics into new areas, towards further fundamental understanding and functionalization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. , 37 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1538
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77775Local ID: LIU-TEK-LIC-2012:23ISBN: 978-91-7519-868-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-77775DiVA: diva2:529126
Presentation
2012-06-14, Jordan-Fermi, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-05-29 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC thin films studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy and ab initio calculations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC thin films studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy and ab initio calculations
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 48, no 10, 3686-3691 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Substitution of C with O in hexagonal inherently nanolaminated Ti2AlC has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Ti2Al(C1−x O x ) thin films with x ≤ 0.52 are synthesized by both cathodic arc deposition with the uptake of residual gas O, and solid-state reaction between understoichiometric TiC y and Al2O3(0001) substrates. The compositional analysis is made by analytical transmission electron microscopy, including electron energy loss spectroscopy. Furthermore, predictive ab initio calculations are performed to evaluate the influence of substitutional O on the shear stress at different strains for slip on the (0001) basal plane in the [−1010] and [1−210] directions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag (Germany), 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90742 (URN)10.1007/s10853-013-7165-4 (DOI)000315518400009 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|European Research Council under the European Community|258509227754|Swedish Research Council (VR)||

On the day of the defence date of the Licentiate Thesis, the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-04-19 Created: 2013-04-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Nanolaminated (Cr,Mn)2AlC alloys by magnetron sputtering and ab initio calculations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanolaminated (Cr,Mn)2AlC alloys by magnetron sputtering and ab initio calculations
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We present an ab initio theoretical analysis of the temperature-dependent stability of hexagonal inherently nanolaminated (Cr1-xMnx)2AlC. The results indicate energetic stability over the composition range x = 0.0 to 0.5 for temperatures 600 to 900 K. Corresponding alloy thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering from four elemental targets. X-ray diffraction in combination with analytical transmission electron microscopy including electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that the films were epitaxial (0001)-oriented single crystals with x up to 0.16.

Keyword
MAX phases, sputtering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ab initio calculation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77773 (URN)
Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-05-29 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved
3. A Nanolaminated Magnetic Phase: Mn2GaC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Nanolaminated Magnetic Phase: Mn2GaC
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2014 (English)In: Materials Research Letters, ISSN 2166-3831, Vol. 2, no 2, 89-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Layered magnetic materials are fascinating from the point of view of fundamental science as well as applications. Discoveries such as giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in magnetic multilayers have revolutionized data storage and magnetic recording, and concurrently initiated the search for new layered magnetic materials. One group of inherently nanolaminated compounds are the so called Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases. Due to the large number of isostructural compositions, researchers are exploring the wide range of interesting properties, and not primarily functionalization through optimization of structural quality. Magnetic MAX phases have been discussed in the literature, though this is hitherto an unreported phenomenon. However, such materials would be highly interesting, based on the attractive and useful properties attained with layered magnetic materials to date. Here we present a new MAX phase, (Cr1–xMnx)2GeC, synthesized as thin film in heteroepitaxial form, showing single crystal material with unprecedented structural MAX phase quality. The material was identified using first-principles calculations to study stability of hypothetical MAX phases, in an eort to identify a potentially magnetic material. The theory predicts a variety of magnetic behavior depending on the Mn concentration and Cr/Mn atomic conguration within the sublattice. The analyzed thin films display a magnetic signal well above room temperature and with partly ferromagnetic ordering. These very promising results open up a field of new layered magnetic materials, with high potential for electronics and spintronics applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keyword
MAX phases, sputtering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ab initio calculation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77774 (URN)10.1080/21663831.2013.865105 (DOI)
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was previous Manuscript. The original title of the Manuscript was Magnetic nanoscale laminates from first principles and thin film synthesis.

Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-05-29 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved

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