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Study of Six-Port Modulators and Demodulators for High-Speed Data Communications
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is an increasing demand for high-speed wireless data communications to support consumers’ need for, among other things, real time streaming of high definition video and fast file transfers. One radio architecture that has a potential to meet the increasing demand for high-speed data communications is a radio technique based on the six-port architecture. In addition to high-speed, the six-port radio also allows low power consumption and low cost. In this thesis, a comprehensive study of the six-port radio technique for high data rate (> 1 Gbit/s) and low complexity are presented.

Firstly, a technique to suppress the carrier leakage was proposed, analyzed and verified by measurements. The proposed technique uses only a phase shifting network between the six-port correlator and its variable impedance loads, hence it is easy to implement. When the proposed carrier leakage suppression technique is used together with differential control signals, it also has the benefit of both improving the linearity and increasing the output power of the modulator. The same carrier leakage suppression technique can also be used in a six-port demodulator (receiver) to improve its performance.

Secondly, Schottky diodes were proposed to be used as high-speed variable impedance loads. A six-port modulator operating at 7.5 GHz, using the carrier leakage suppression technique together with Schottky diodes as variable impedance loads, was manufactured. Measurements on a 16 quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signal with a symbol rate of 300 Msymbol/s, i.e., a data rate of 1.2 Gbit/s, have proved high-speed operation, good modulation properties as well as carrier leakage suppression.

Thirdly, a six-port demodulator was built for high data rate applications and measurements were conducted to characterize its performance. Demodulation of a 16-QAM signal at a data rate of 1.67 Gbit/s results in an acceptable bit error rate and error vector magnitude (EVM) performance.

Last but not least, new diode configurations were proposed, analyzed and verified for use in six-port demodulators. Using the proposed diode configurations, the use of differential amplifiers, as commonly used in a six-port demodulator, can be avoided. Avoiding the use of differential amplifiers allows high-speed processing and at the same time reduces the power consumption and implementation complexity. In the context of the new diode configurations, it was shown that a six-port receiver has better EVM vs frequency performance and lower implementation complexity, compared to a five-port or four-port receiver.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. , 79 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1445
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76087ISBN: 978-91-7519-899-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-76087DiVA: diva2:525623
Public defence
2012-05-31, K1, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-03-26 Last updated: 2012-05-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Direct Carrier Six-Port Modulator Using a Technique to Suppress Carrier Leakage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct Carrier Six-Port Modulator Using a Technique to Suppress Carrier Leakage
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2011 (English)In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 59, no 3, 741-747 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a direct carrier six-port modulator. To allow arbitrary load impedances to be used and for suppression of carrier leakage, a new circuit architecture with a technique to suppress carrier leakage is proposed and implemented. A theoretical model of the proposed modulator is derived. A prototype modulator utilizing diodes for impedance generation is designed and fabricated for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz for verification of the proposed technique. Measurements show good modulation properties when a 16 quadrature amplitude modulation signal at 100 Msymbol/s is generated, as well as good carrier leakage suppression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics, 2011
Keyword
Carrier leakage suppression, direct carrier modulator, six-port correlator
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67308 (URN)10.1109/TMTT.2011.2104972 (DOI)000288460500026 ()
Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-08 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
2. Carrier Leakage Suppression and EVM Dependence on Phase Shifting Network in Six-Port Modulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrier Leakage Suppression and EVM Dependence on Phase Shifting Network in Six-Port Modulator
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In six-port modulators a phase shifting network on specific ports can be used to suppress the carrier leakage that may be present if this network is not present. A model is derived to predict the carrier leakage suppression and error vector magnitude (EVM) as a function of the phase shifting network Sparameters. Both carrier leakage suppression and EVM can be expressed by the same error function. The error function can be used to find the allowed amplitude and phase mismatch in the phase shifting network, or to optimize the performance of a phase shifting network over a given frequency range. A broadband phase shifting network, based on a loaded transmission line, is designed and optimized to operate at a relative bandwidth of 60% for an EVM < 10%. This should be compared to a phase shifting network based on a single transmission line with a corresponding bandwidth of only 12%. The broadband phase shifting network is useful for six-port modulators with carrier leakage suppression, targeting UWB applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Six-Port Modulator, Carrier Leakage, EVM, Broadband
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77194 (URN)10.1109/ICMMT.2012.6230247 (DOI)978-1-4673-2184-6 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology ICMMT, May 5-8, Shenzhen, China
Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
3. Schottky diode as high-speed variable impedance load in six-port modulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Schottky diode as high-speed variable impedance load in six-port modulators
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2011 (English)In: ICUWB 2011: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2011, 68-71 p.Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of Schottky diodes as high-speed variable impedance loads in six-port modulators are proposed and analyzed in this paper. The impedance dependency of diode parameters and local oscillator power are investigated by theoretical analysis and simulations. A prototype for a direct carrier six-port modulator using Schottky diodes for impedance generation is designed and fabricated for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz. Measurements show good modulation properties when a 16 quadrature amplitude modulation signal at 300 Msymbol/s is generated, i.e., at a data rate of 1.2 Gbit/s, validating the use of Schottky diodes as high-speed variable impedance loads in six-port modulators.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Ultra- Wideband (ICUWB), ISSN 2162-6588 ; 2011
Keyword
Schottky diodes, electric impedance measurement, modulators, oscillators, quadrature amplitude modulation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77196 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2011.6058924 (DOI)978-1-4577-1762-8 (ISBN)978-1-4577-1763-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB),14-16 September, 2011, Bologna, Spain
Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
4. Six-Port Gigabit Demodulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Six-Port Gigabit Demodulator
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2011 (English)In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 59, no 1, 125-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents measurement results for a six-port-based demodulator designed for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz and with a bandwidth of 1 GHz for operation in the ultra-wideband band. The demodulator includes the six-port correlator, diodes, and amplifiers needed to recover the baseband data. Measurement results show that the prototype supports data rates at 1.7 Gbit/s with bit-error rate 5 . 10(-5) if a two-tap linear equalizer is used and bit-error rate 4 . 10(-3) if only threshold detection is used. The measured performance of the used six-port correlator including the amplifiers is presented and their influence on the overall system performance is discussed. Limitations in the present system and possible improvements are also considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics, 2011
Keyword
Demodulator, six-port correlator
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66297 (URN)10.1109/TMTT.2010.2091198 (DOI)000286109400015 ()
Available from: 2011-03-11 Created: 2011-03-11 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
5. Diode Configurations in Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diode Configurations in Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter
Show others...
2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE International Conferenceon Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB2010): Proceedings – Volume 1, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, 1-4 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents two new diode configurations for use with six-port based demodulators. The first proposed diode configuration allows a simplified diode to filter/amplifier interface. The second configuration allows for full-wave rectification and suppression of odd-order harmonics. A demodulator prototype utilizing the new diode concept is designed for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz and with a bandwidth of 1 GHz for verification. The demodulator includes the six-port correlator, diodes and amplifiers needed to recover the baseband data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE, 2010
Keyword
amplifiers, demodulators, diodes, radio receivers
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77198 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2010.5615597 (DOI)978-1-4244-5306-1 (ISBN)978-1-4244-5305-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB),20-23 September, 2010, Nanjing, China
Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
6. Performance Evaluation of Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation of Six-Port Receivers with Simplified Interface to Amplifier and Filter
Show others...
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In six-port modulators a phase shifting network on specific ports can be used to suppress the carrier leakage that may be present if this network is not present. A model is derived to predict the carrier leakage suppression and error vector magnitude (EVM) as a function of the phase shifting network Sparameters. Both carrier leakage suppression and EVM can be expressed by the same error function. The error function can be used to find the allowed amplitude and phase mismatch in the phase shifting network, or to optimize the performance of a phase shifting network over a given frequency range. A broadband phase shifting network, based on a loaded transmission line, is designed and optimized to operate at a relative bandwidth of 60% for an EVM < 10%. This should be compared to a phase shifting network based on a single transmission line with a corresponding bandwidth of only 12%. The broadband phase shifting network is useful for six-port modulators with carrier leakage suppression, targeting UWB applications.

Keyword
Six-Port Modulator, Carrier Leakage, EVM, Broadband
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77200 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2011.6058824 (DOI)978-1-4577-1762-8 (ISBN)978-1-4577-1763-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 14-16 September 2011, Bologna, Spain
Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
7. Data and Carrier Interleaving in Six-Port Receivers for Increased Data Rate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data and Carrier Interleaving in Six-Port Receivers for Increased Data Rate
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2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE International Conferenceon Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB2010: Proceedings - Volume 1, 2010, 1-4 p.Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes how antenna polarization can be utilized to increase the maximum data rate in a multiple six-port receiver system. By utilizing data and carrier interleaving, the total information bandwidth increases and therefore the maximum data rate. Prototype antennas were manufactured and the measured results were later used in a simulation model with three channels for verification of the concept.

Keyword
Antennas, electromagnetic wave polarisation, radio receivers
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77201 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2010.5614449 (DOI)978-1-4244-5306-1 (ISBN)978-1-4244-5305-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 20-23 September, Nanjing, China
Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
8. Baseband complexity comparison of six-, five-, and four-port receivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Baseband complexity comparison of six-, five-, and four-port receivers
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2012 (English)In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 54, no 6, 1502-1506 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of six-port correlators to implement six-port receivers has been intensively studied. The six-port receiver can also be modified to a five-port or a four-port receiver. However, the six-, five-, or four-port receiver solution requires different baseband processing to recover the baseband In-phase (I) and Quadrature-phase (Q) data. A unified mathematical model for the six-, five- and four-port receivers is presented in this article. Possible solutions to recover the baseband data are discussed and compared. The investigation shows that the six-port receiver has advantages over the five- and four-port receivers in terms of complexity when analog baseband processing is used. Simulations are conducted to verify the model and to estimate the error vector magnitude versus frequency; the simulation also shows that the six-port receiver operates over a wider bandwidth than the five- or four-port receiver.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
Keyword
six-port receiver, five-port receiver, four-port receiver, baseband complexity
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76606 (URN)10.1002/mop.26833 (DOI)000301715800045 ()
Available from: 2012-04-13 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07
9. LO Leakage in Six-Port Modulators and Demodulators and its Suppression Techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LO Leakage in Six-Port Modulators and Demodulators and its Suppression Techniques
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In a six-port demodulator utilizing diodes for power detection, impedance mismatch at the interface between the six-port correlator and diodes generates unwanted local oscillator (LO) leakage to the radio frequency (RF) port. A six-port modulator that uses variable reflection coefficients at specific ports to generate a modulated RF may also suffer from LO leakage if there is a static part in the reflection coefficient. It is known that LO leakage to the RF port not only generates unwanted emission of the LO signal, but also degrades the receiver system performance due to a dynamic dc offset and second-order non-linearity at the detected baseband signal. How this LO leakage appears to the RF port in six-port demodulators and modulators are analyzed. Two different approaches to suppress the LO leakage is then discussed: a) diode impedance matching and b) introduction of a λ/4 line on specific ports. The performance when λ/4 lines are used on specific ports is verified by measurement for both a demodulator and a modulator. The measurement shows high suppression of the LO leakage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Six-Port Correlator, Six-Port Receiver, LO Leakage, LO Suppression
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77207 (URN)10.1109/MWSYM.2012.6258402 (DOI)978-1-4673-1086-4 (ISBN)978-1-4673-1085-7 (ISBN)
Conference
International Microwave Symposium, June 17-22, Montréal, Canada
Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved

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