In the Pipe or End of Pipe?: Transport and Dispersion of Water-borne Pollutants and Feasibility of Abatement Measures
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Eutrophication is one of the key environmental problems of today, both in terms of complexity and magnitude. For the Baltic Sea (BS), eutrophication is an acute problem, leading to hypoxic conditions at the bottom; a situation that is sustained and amplified, when phosphorus is released from hypoxic sediments. Reducing nutrient loading is a top political priority but the present situation is believed to require active measures within the catchments and recipients to reduce both loading and adverse effects. Implementation of effective and cost-efficient abatement methods requires understanding of natural processes in watersheds, streams and recipients as well as technological expertise in order to compare the effects of measures of different kinds and locations. This thesis tries to combine process understanding of catchment transport behaviour, especially in coastal zones, and feasibility of certain technologies for reducing nutrient loading and effects of eutrophication in-situ. The over-arching theme is the fate of the individual contaminant, from injection to removal. Transport and dispersion in catchments are investigated, combining physically-based, distributed, numerical groundwater models with Lagrangian stochastic advective reactive solute (LaSAR) transport modelling. The approach is powerful in the sense that it incorporates catchment structural, geomorphological dispersion in the numerical model with hydrodynamic and sub-scale dispersion as well as uncertainty in the LaSAR framework. The study exemplifies the complex nature of transport time distributions in catchments in general and when varying source size and location, importance of dispersion parameters and retention due to molecular diffusion. It is shown that geomorphological control on dispersion is present even for relatively heterogeneous systems and that neither the mean residence time nor a statistical distribution may provide accurate representations of hydrological systems. To combat internal loading of P from sediments in-situ, large-scale aeration of deep waters, halocline ventilation, has been suggested. This study further investigates the feasibility of wave-powered devices to meet the energy demands for such an operation. It is shown that the required amount of oxygen needed to keep the sediments at oxic conditions could be provided, cheaply and efficiently, through the use of wave power.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , xvi, 45 p.
Trita-LWR. LIC, 2064
Contaminant transport modelling, Groundwater, Dispersion, Wave power, Eutrophication
Water Engineering Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-94110ISBN: 978-91-7501-344-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-94110DiVA: diva2:525336
2012-05-30, V2, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Niemi, Auli, Professor
Cvetkovic, Vladimir, Professor
QC 201205112012-05-112012-05-072012-05-11Bibliographically approved