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Provisioning Strategies for Transparent Optical Networks Considering Transmission Quality, Security, and Energy Efficiency
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The continuous growth of traffic demand driven by the brisk increase in number of Internet users and emerging online services creates new challenges for communication networks. The latest advances in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology make it possible to build Transparent Optical Networks (TONs) which are expected to be able to satisfy this rapidly growing capacity demand. Moreover, with the ability of TONs to transparently carry the optical signal from source to destination, electronic processing of the tremendous amount of data can be avoided and optical-to-electrical-to-optical (O/E/O) conversion at intermediate nodes can be eliminated. Consequently, transparent WDM networks consume relatively low power, compared to their electronic-based IP network counterpart. Furthermore, TONs bring also additional benefits in terms of bit rate, signal format, and protocol transparency. However, the absence of O/E/O processing at intermediate nodes in TONs has also some drawbacks. Without regeneration, the quality of the optical signal transmitted from a source to a destination might be degraded due to the effect of physical-layer impairments induced by the transmission through optical fibers and network components. For this reason, routing approaches specifically tailored to account for the effect of physical-layer impairments are needed to avoid setting up connections that don’t satisfy required signal quality at the receiver. Transparency also makes TONs highly vulnerable to deliberate physical-layer attacks. Malicious attacking signals can cause a severe impact on the traffic and for this reason proactive mechanisms, e.g., network design strategies, able to limit their effect are required. Finally, even though energy consumption of transparent WDM networks is lower than in the case of networks processing the traffic at the nodes in the electronic domain, they have the potential to consume even less power. This can be accomplished by targeting the inefficiencies of the current provisioning strategies applied in WDM networks.

The work in this thesis addresses the three important aspects mentioned above. In particular, this thesis focuses on routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) strategies specifically devised to target: (i) the lightpath transmission quality, (ii) the network security (i.e., in terms of vulnerability to physical-layer attacks), and (iii) the reduction of the network energy consumption. Our contributions are summarized below.

A number of Impairment Constraint Based Routing (ICBR) algorithms have been proposed in the literature to consider physical-layer impairments during the connection provisioning phase. Their objective is to prevent the selection of optical connections (referred to as lightpaths) with poor signal quality. These ICBR approaches always assign each connection request the least impaired lightpath and support only a single threshold of transmission quality, used for all connection requests. However, next generation networks are expected to support a variety of services with disparate requirements for transmission quality. To address this issue, in this thesis we propose an ICBR algorithm supporting differentiation of services at the Bit Error Rate (BER) level, referred to as ICBR-Diff. Our approach takes into account the effect of physical-layer impairments during the connection provisioning phase where various BER thresholds are considered for accepting/blocking connection requests, depending on the signal quality requirements of the connection requests. We tested the proposed ICBR-Diff approach in different network scenarios, including also a fiber heterogeneity. It is shown that it can achieve a significant improvement of network performance in terms of connection blocking, compared to previously published non-differentiated RWA and ICBR algorithms. 

Another important challenge to be considered in TONs is their vulnerability to physical-layer attacks. Deliberate attacking signals, e.g., high-power jamming, can cause severe service disruption or even service denial, due to their ability to propagate in the network. Detecting and locating the source of such attacks is difficult, since monitoring must be done in the optical domain, and it is also very expensive. Several attack-aware RWA algorithms have been proposed in the literature to proactively reduce the disruption caused by high-power jamming attacks. However, even with attack-aware network planning mechanisms, the uncontrollable propagation of the attack still remains an issue. To address this problem, we propose the use of power equalizers inside the network nodes in order to limit the propagation of high-power jamming attacks. Because of the high cost of such equipment, we develop a series of heuristics (incl. Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP)) aiming at minimizing the number of power equalizers needed to reduce the network attack vulnerability to a desired level by optimizing the location of the equalizers. Our simulation results show that the equalizer placement obtained by the proposed GRASP approach allows for 50% reduction of the sites with the power equalizers while offering the same level of attack propagation limitation as it is possible to achieve with all nodes having this additional equipment installed. In turn, this potentially yields a significant cost saving.   

Energy consumption in TONs has been the target of several studies focusing on the energy-aware and survivable network design problem for both dedicated and shared path protection. However, survivability and energy efficiency in a dynamic provisioning scenario has not been addressed. To fill this gap, in this thesis we focus on the power consumption of survivable WDM network with dynamically provisioned 1:1 dedicated path protected connections. We first investigate the potential energy savings that are achievable by setting all unused protection resources into a lower-power, stand-by state (or sleep mode) during normal network operations. It is shown that in this way the network power consumption can be significantly reduced. Thus, to optimize the energy savings, we propose and evaluate a series of energy-efficient strategies, specifically tailored around the sleep mode functionality. The performance evaluation results reveal the existence of a trade-off between energy saving and connection blocking. Nonetheless, they also show that with the right provisioning strategy it is possible to save a considerable amount of energy with a negligible impact on the connection blocking probability.

In order to evaluate the performance of our proposed ICBR-Diff and energy-aware RWA algorithms, we develop two custom-made discrete-event simulators. In addition, the Matlab program of GRASP approach for power equalization placement problem is implemented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , xv, 68 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2012:05
Keyword [en]
transparent optical networks, routing and wavelength assignment, physical-layer impairments, signal quality, differentiation of services, physical-layer attacks, power equalizers, Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP), green networks, energy awareness, dedicated path protection, shared path protection, survivable WDM networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-94011ISBN: 978-91-7501-335-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-94011DiVA: diva2:525006
Public defence
2012-05-28, C1, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20120508

Available from: 2012-05-08 Created: 2012-05-04 Last updated: 2013-10-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Quantifying the Benefit of BER-based Differentiated Path Provisioning in WDM Optical Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the Benefit of BER-based Differentiated Path Provisioning in WDM Optical Networks
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2009 (English)In: ICTON: 2009 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS, VOLS 1 AND 2, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, 1097-1100 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we propose the use of Bit Error Rate (BER) as a differentiation of service parameter for connection provisioning in optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks. This is achieved through the use of Impairment Constraint Based Routing (ICBR), whereby various BER thresholds are set for accepting/blocking requests at the connection provisioning phase, depending on QoS requirements. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated through simulations, using dynamic traffic demands as an input at 10 Gb/s bit rate. The evaluation results reveal significant improvement in term of connection blocking, as compared to non-differentiated conventional RWA and ICBR algorithms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: IEEE, 2009
Keyword
impairment constraint based routing (ICBR), differentiation of services, signal quality, physical impairments, transparent optical networks
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-30207 (URN)10.1109/ICTON.2009.5185216 (DOI)000274048000291 ()2-s2.0-70449341828 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-4825-8 (ISBN)
Conference
ICTON 2009:11th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks S Miguel, PORTUGAL, JUN 28-JUL 02, 2009
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2011-02-22 Created: 2011-02-21 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved
2. ICBR-Diff: An Impairment Constraint Based Routing Strategy with Quality of Signal Differentiation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICBR-Diff: An Impairment Constraint Based Routing Strategy with Quality of Signal Differentiation
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Networks, ISSN 1796-2056, E-ISSN 1796-2056, Vol. 5, no 11, 1279-1289 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Latest advances in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology make it possible to build all-optical transparent networks, which are considered to be able to satisfy the rapidly growing capacity demand. However, in a transparent WDM network the optical signal transmitted from a source to a destination node might be degraded due to physical layer impairments induced by transmission through optical fibers and components. Several Impairment Constraint Based Routing (ICBR) algorithms have been proposed to consider physical layer impairments during the connection-provisioning phase in order to prevent selecting a lightpath with poor signal quality. However, these algorithms support only a single quality of transmission threshold for all connection requests, while next generation networks and the future Internet are expected to support a variety of services with potentially disparate QoS requirements. In this paper, we propose the use of bit error rate (BER) as a differentiation of service parameter for connection requests in optical WDM networks. This is achieved through the use of ICBR, whereby various BER thresholds are set depending on the QoS requirements for accepting/blocking the connection requests during the connection-provisioning phase. The evaluation results reveal that significant network performance improvement in terms of connection blocking can be achieved, compared to non-differentiated conventional routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) and ICBR algorithms.

Keyword
Impairment Constraint Based Routing (ICBR), differentiation of services, signal quality, physical layer impairments, connection provisioning, transparent optical networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-62585 (URN)10.4304/jnw.5.11.1279-1289 (DOI)2-s2.0-78651561172 (Scopus ID)
Projects
BONEMANGO
Note

QC 20150626

Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Impairment Constraint Based Routing (ICBR) with service differentiation in survivable WDM networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impairment Constraint Based Routing (ICBR) with service differentiation in survivable WDM networks
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2009 (English)In: European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, 2009, 1-2 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose and evaluate a novel survivable impairment constraint based routing (ICBR) algorithm with service differentiation at the bit error rate level. Simulations show significant improvement in connection blocking compared to conventional ICBR solutions.

Keyword
bit error rate level;connection blocking;impairment constraint based routing;service differentiation;survivable WDM networks;error statistics;optical fibre networks;telecommunication network reliability;telecommunication network routing;wavelength division multiplexing;
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-62514 (URN)000300493200048 ()2-s2.0-71949127133 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5096-1 (ISBN)
Conference
35th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2009; Vienna; Austria; 20 September 2009 through 24 September 2009
Projects
BONE
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved
4. Impairment aware routing with service differentiation in heterogeneous WDM networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impairment aware routing with service differentiation in heterogeneous WDM networks
Show others...
2009 (English)In: 2009 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2009, 2009, 1-2 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We evaluate an Impairment Constraint Based Routing algorithm with service differentiation (ICBR-Diff) applied in WDM networks with fiber links having varying Polarization Mode Dispersion characteristics. Simulation results show high adaptability of the ICBR-Diff approach to this heterogeneous fiber scenario when compared to conventional routing schemes.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-62528 (URN)2-s2.0-77949384584 (Scopus ID)978-1-55752-877-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2009 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2009; Shanghai; China; 2 November 2009 through 6 November 2009;
Projects
BONEMANGO
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved
5. Limiting physical-layer attack propagation with power equalization placement in transparent WDM networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Limiting physical-layer attack propagation with power equalization placement in transparent WDM networks
Show others...
2010 (English)In: 2010 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2010, 2010, 363-364 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose and evaluate a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure applied to minimize the number of power equalizers (GRASP-PE) needed to limit the propagation of high-power jamming attacks in WDM networks. Simulation results show that GRASP-PE significantly reduces the required number of power equalizers when compared to a greedy approach.

Keyword
greedy randomized adaptive search procedure;high-power jamming attack;physical-layer attack propagation;power equalization placement;power equalizer;transparent WDM network;equalisers;greedy algorithms;jamming;radiowave propagation;wavelength division multiplexing;
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-62576 (URN)10.1109/ACP.2010.5682518 (DOI)2-s2.0-79851476220 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-7111-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2010; Shanghai; China; 8 December 2010 through 12 December 2010
Projects
SAFE“Security in All-Optical Networks” project funded by VINNOVABONE
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved
6. Sparse power equalization placement for limiting jamming attack propagation in transparent optical networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sparse power equalization placement for limiting jamming attack propagation in transparent optical networks
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Optical Switching and Networkning Journal, ISSN 1573-4277, E-ISSN 1872-9770, Vol. 8, no 4, 249-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The latest advances in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology are making it possible to build all-optical transparent WDM networks, which are expected to be able to satisfy the rapid growth of today's capacity demand. However, the transparency of such networks makes them highly vulnerable to deliberate attacks, specifically targeting the physical layer. Physical-layer attacks, such as high-power jamming, can cause severe service disruption or even service denial, enhanced by their capability to propagate through a transparent optical network. Several attack-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have been proposed to reduce the possible disruption caused by high-power jamming attacks. However, even with network planning approaches which take network security, specifically physical-layer attacks, into account, resilience to deliberate attacks in such scenarios remains an issue. In this paper, we propose the use of wavelength-selective attenuators as power equalizers inside network nodes to limit the propagation of high-power jamming attacks. Due to the increased cost of optical switching nodes associated with the addition of power equalizers, we aim at minimizing their number through sparse power equalization placement. We developed a set of greedy algorithms to solve what we call the Power Equalization Placement (PEP) problem with the objective of minimizing the number of power equalizers needed to reduce, to a desired level, the propagation of high-power jamming attacks for a given routing scheme. We further improved upon these results by proposing a GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure) heuristic with a somewhat longer execution time, but with significantly superior results. The performance evaluation results indicate that the proposed GRASP heuristic can achieve the same attack propagation reduction as can be obtained by equipping all nodes with power equalizers by placing them at less than 50% of the nodes on average, potentially yielding significant cost savings.

Keyword
Physical-layer attacks, Power equalizers, Greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), Transparent optical networks
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-51269 (URN)10.1016/j.osn.2011.06.008 (DOI)000297084300005 ()2-s2.0-80053369083 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SRA, TNG, HiL
Funder
EU, European Research CouncilICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
7. Dynamic provisioning strategies for energy efficient WDM networks with dedicated path protection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic provisioning strategies for energy efficient WDM networks with dedicated path protection
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Optical Switching and Networkning Journal, ISSN 1573-4277, E-ISSN 1872-9770, Vol. 8, no 3, 201-213 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy consumption in optical backbone networks is increasing due to two main reasons: (i) the exponential growth of bandwidth demands, and (ii) the increase in availability requirements in order to guarantee protection of the ultra high capacity optical channels provided by wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks. Although state of the art reliability mechanisms are very efficient in guaranteeing high availability, they do not consider the impact of the protection resources on the network's energy consumption. Dedicated (1:1) path protection (DPP) is a well-known mechanism that provides one extra link-disjoint path for the protection of a connection request. This secondary path is reserved and maintained in an active mode even though it is not utilized most of the time. This means that in-line optical amplifiers and switching nodes/ports are always consuming power even when they are not used to reroute any primary traffic. Moreover secondary paths are on average longer than their respective primary paths. These observations motivated us to investigate the energy savings, when all unused protection resources can be switched into a low-power, stand-by state (or sleep mode) during normal network operation and can be activated upon a failure. It is shown that significant reduction of power consumption (up to 25%) can be achieved by putting protection resources into sleep mode. Moreover, in order to enhance this energy saving figure, this paper proposes and evaluates different energy-efficient algorithms, specifically tailored around the sleep mode option, to dynamically provision 1:1 dedicated path protected connection. The trade-off between energy saving and blocking probability is discussed and an efficient mechanism to overcome this drawback is devised. Our results reveal that a 34% reduction of energy consumption can be obtained with a negligible impact on the network's blocking performance.

Keyword
Green networks, Energy-aware, Power efficiency, Dedicated path protection, Survivable WDM networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37161 (URN)10.1016/j.osn.2011.03.008 (DOI)000292572900008 ()2-s2.0-79957687349 (Scopus ID)
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Available from: 2011-08-03 Created: 2011-08-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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