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Uncertainties in Mobile Learning applications: Software Architecture Challenges
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics. (CeLeKT)
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The presence of computer technologies in our daily life is growing by leaps and bounds. One of the recent trends is the use of mobile technologies and cloud services for supporting everyday tasks and the sharing of information between users. The field of education is not absent from these developments and many organizations are adopting Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in various ways for supporting teaching and learning. The field of Mobile Learning (M-Learning) offers new opportunities for carrying out collaborative educational activities in a variety of settings and situations. The use of mobile technologies for enhancing collaboration provides new opportunities but at the same time new challenges emerge.

One of those challenges is discussed in this thesis and it con- cerns with uncertainties related to the dynamic aspects that characterized outdoor M-Learning activities. The existence of these uncertainties force software developers to make assumptions in their developments. However, these uncertainties are the cause of risks that may affect the required outcomes for M-Learning activities. Mitigations mechanisms can be developed and included to reduce the risks’ impact during the different phases of development. However, uncertainties which are present at runtime require adaptation mechanisms to mitigate the resulting risks.

This thesis analyzes the current state of the art in self-adaptation in Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) and M-Learning. The results of an extensive literature survey in the field and the outcomes of the Geometry Mobile (GEM) research project are reported. A list of uncertainties in collaborative M-Learning activities and the associated risks that threaten the critical QoS outcomes for collaboration are identified and discussed. A detailed elaboration addressing mitigation mechanisms to cope with these problems is elaborated and presented. The results of these efforts provide valuable insights and the basis towards the design of a multi-agent self-adaptive architecture for multiple concerns that is illustrated with a prototype implementation. The proposed conceptual architecture is an initial cornerstone towards the creation of a decentralized distributed self-adaptive system for multiple concerns to guarantee collaboration in M-Learning. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Sweden: Linnaeus University , 2012. , 136 p.
Keyword [en]
distributed systems, uncertainties, self-adaptation, QoS, collaboration, M-Learning
Keyword [es]
TEL, Mobile Learning, Distributed Systems, Uncertainties, Quality of Service, Self-Adaptation
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18547OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-18547DiVA: diva2:524874
Presentation
2012-03-12, Homeros, Linnaeus University, Växjö, 10:20 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-09 Created: 2012-05-04 Last updated: 2017-02-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the Issue of Reusability and Adaptability in M-learning Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Issue of Reusability and Adaptability in M-learning Systems
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless, Mobile, and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Press, 2010, 161-165 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a brief overview over some of the conceptual and technical issues associated with reusability and adaptability. The specific orientation of our efforts is oriented towards systems supporting Mobile Learning. The field of M-learning domain has during recent years been suffering from severe configuration problems caused by the plethora of mobile devices present on the market. This paper presents a conceptual architecture that has been conceived to remedy some of these issues. Furthermore, a possible instantiation of this architecture with self-adaptivity features is discussed and a first prototype implementation is presented. The notion of ecosystems is introduced, as we believe it is an important building block towards increasing the reusability of components and content in this field where composition is one of the major issues to be addressed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Press, 2010
Keyword
M-learning, Self-adaptation, Software Ecosystem
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-6523 (URN)10.1109/WMUTE.2010.48 (DOI)2-s2.0-77954462642 (Scopus ID)978-0-7695-3992-8 (ISBN)
Conference
WMUTE2010, 12-16 April 2010
Available from: 2010-06-24 Created: 2010-06-24 Last updated: 2016-08-15Bibliographically approved
2. Providing Flexibility in Learning Activities Systems by Exploiting the Multiple Roles of Mobile Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Providing Flexibility in Learning Activities Systems by Exploiting the Multiple Roles of Mobile Devices
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless, mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education, IEEE Computer Society, 2010, 166-170 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The wide adoption of mobile and wireless technologies allow for users to have access to learning resources and generate digital content at any location and time. An immediate implication of this latest trend is the need to create and deploy learning activity systems that offer a high level of flexibility. This flexibility can allow for the creation of adaptive activities, something highly required in dynamic learning environments such as those in the field of M-learning. Mobile devices can provide flexibility to activity systems by adapting their behavior on a context basis. To give an example of flexibility in the mobile device behavior, we present the FLexible Activity Client (FLAC). FLAC is a mobile application that allows the mobile device to switch from client-role to service-provider-role behavior. We describe our proposed architecture and its implementation and present the results of our initial tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2010
Keyword
Learning Activity System, Software adaptability, mobile collaborative learning, mobile web servers
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-7368 (URN)10.1109/WMUTE.2010.49 (DOI)2-s2.0-77954477826 (Scopus ID)978-0-7695-3992-8 (ISBN)
Conference
WMUTE 2010
Available from: 2010-08-17 Created: 2010-08-16 Last updated: 2016-08-15Bibliographically approved
3. Mobile Virtual Devices for Collaborative M-Learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile Virtual Devices for Collaborative M-Learning
2010 (English)In: Workshop Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The increasing use of mobile devices to support collaborative activities creates a need for developing new methods and perspectives to facilitate information sharing. In this paper, we present an approach for information sharing in mobile collaborative settings through the use of Mobile Virtual Devices (MVD). MVD emerges as a new conceptualization of an organization of mobile devices that supports collaborative tasks. The use of MVD allows designers and users to interact with and through mobile devices in novel ways, considering the aggregation of mobile devices as a single entity. The notion of MVD has been conceptualized on the idea of multirole devices, using components to provide and consume resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, 2010
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-9382 (URN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE
Available from: 2010-11-19 Created: 2010-11-19 Last updated: 2016-08-15Bibliographically approved
4. Enhancing Mobile Learning Activities by the Use of Mobile Virtual Devices: Some Design and Implementation Issues
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing Mobile Learning Activities by the Use of Mobile Virtual Devices: Some Design and Implementation Issues
2010 (English)In: 2010 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems (INCOS), IEEE Press, 2010, 137-144 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of multiple mobile devices is increasing in mobile learning, bringing a need for collaboration and resource sharing among participating pupils. This paper presents an approach that addresses information and resource sharing for mobile devices in indoors and outdoors settings. Our solution consists of aggregated mobile devices, forming organizations. These Mobile Virtual Devices (MVDs) provide a new mechanism that facilitates design of mobile learning activities offering a virtual complex device that combines the features of several mobile devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2010
Keyword
mobile organization, shared resources, collaborative learning
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-9383 (URN)10.1109/INCOS.2010.85 (DOI)2-s2.0-79952080508 (Scopus ID)978-0-7695-4278-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems, 24-26 Nov. 2010, Thessaloniki
Available from: 2010-11-19 Created: 2010-11-19 Last updated: 2016-08-15Bibliographically approved
5. Towards a Decentralized and Self-Adaptive System for M-Learning Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Decentralized and Self-Adaptive System for M-Learning Applications
2012 (English)In: Seventh IEEE International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education: Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan, 27-30 March 2012, IEEE, 2012, 162-166 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Through the analysis of the different iterations of the Geometry Mobile (GEM) project, a mobile learning effort in the field of mathematics, we have identified a major architectural issue to be addressed in the design and implementation of m-learning applications. Due to the dynamic nature of the field many challenging requirements are continuously emerging. One of them relates to the possibility to support collaborative activities that demand sharing resources between students and their mobile devices in constantly changing conditions. These situations generate the need of using decentralized distributed architectures in which mobile devices can share resources to carry out the activity covering the concerns defined by the different stakeholders. This paper describes our current efforts connected to identifying a set of requirements for M-Learning activities. Thereafter, we elaborate on why a decentralized distributed system (DDS) can be used to provide a novel solution to tackle the mentioned above problems. Moreover, initial aspects related to the design of a DDS, including a self-adaptation mechanism are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
mobile learning, self-adaptation, decentralized distributed system
National Category
Computer Systems Media Engineering Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Media Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-16404 (URN)10.1109/WMUTE.2012.37 (DOI)2-s2.0-84860808453 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-0884-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile, and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education, (WMUTE), Takamatsu, 27-30 March, 2012
Projects
AMULETS
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2011-12-28 Last updated: 2017-04-25Bibliographically approved

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