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Efficient treatment of forest industrial wastewaters: Energy efficiency and resilience during disturbances
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This work concerns the efficient treatment of wastewaters from pulp and paper mills by means of aerobic biological processes. For treatment processes there are many aspects of efficiency and the present study investigates both energy efficiency and purification efficiency during disturbances.

Special focus is put on wood extractives, such as resin acids and fatty acids, since they can cause negative effects in fish and other organisms in the receiving waters. They can furthermore be toxic to microorganisms in a biological treatment plant. They also affect oxygen transfer, which is important for energy efficient aeration of aerobic biological treatment processes.

This thesis includes five papers/studies and presents a strategy for efficient treatment of forest industrial wastewaters. The results should help creating resilient wastewater treatment strategies with efficient use of energy. One new strategy proposed here includes separation of extractives before the wastewater is treated biologically, and the use of the extra amount of sludge as an energy source, shifting the energy balance from negative to positive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012. , 70 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:22
Keyword [en]
Forest industry, wastewater, oxygen transfer rate, black liquor, surface active, extractives
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-13031ISBN: 978-91-7063-426-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-13031DiVA: diva2:524072
Public defence
2012-06-07, Nyqvistsalen 9C203, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-24 Created: 2012-04-18 Last updated: 2012-08-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Black Liquor and Alkaline Shocks in a Multiple Stage Biological Treatment Plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Black Liquor and Alkaline Shocks in a Multiple Stage Biological Treatment Plant
2008 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, ISSN 1496-2551, E-ISSN 1496-256X, Vol. 7, no 4, 335-344 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To find the impact that alkaline and black liquor spills have on multiple stage biological treatment plants, trials were made in a MultiBio lab-scale treatment plant. It was shown that the concentration of black liquor was diluted between the multiple stages. The initial bacterial stages were inhibited by high concentration of black liquor but recovered when the concentration decreased. Low pH in the feed contaminated with black liquor gave less inhibition than high pH. In a MultiBio treatment plant the active sludge stages, which are sensitive to toxic spills, are placed after the fast growing bacterial stages and are therefore protected. During normal conditions the activated sludge stages receive low concentrations of biodegradable COD. During the trials extra COD in the form of diluted black liquor induced the COD reduction. To evaluate the results, measured concentrations were compared with a computer model.

National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-1985 (URN)10.1139/S08-007 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-02-11 Created: 2008-02-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Mill Case, Simulation and Laboratory Plant Study of Black Liquor Spill Effects on a Multiple Stage Biological Treatment Plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mill Case, Simulation and Laboratory Plant Study of Black Liquor Spill Effects on a Multiple Stage Biological Treatment Plant
2009 (English)In: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 36, no 5, 839-849 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the impact of black liquor shocks on multiple stage biological treatment plant was studied. The tests were carried out in a lab scale plant and using a mathematical simulation model. The results showed good relation to a parallel situation at the Gruvon Mill. The MultiBio concept is persistent to short-term black liquor spills due to the design where the black liquor is diluted between every compartment. According to the lab scale trials, short-term shocks (5 and 10 h) of black liquor addition reduce bio activity in the first part of the MultiBio plant. Oxygen uptake rate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation decreased during high concentrations of black liquor and increased when the black liquor concentration declined. Protozoas disappeared from compartments exposed to high concentrations of black liquor. A long-term trial encompassing 24 h of black liquor addition inhibited the COD reduction in the whole plant for several weeks

National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-9966 (URN)10.1139/S08-056 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Energy Use and Recovery Strategies within Wastewater Treatment and Sludge Handling at Pulp and Paper Mills
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Use and Recovery Strategies within Wastewater Treatment and Sludge Handling at Pulp and Paper Mills
2009 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 100, no 14, 3497-3505 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an inclusive approach with focus on energy use and recovery in wastewater management, including wastewater treatment (WWT) and sludge handling. Process data from three Swedish mills and a mathematical model were used to evaluate seven sludge handling strategies. The results indicate that excess energy use in WWT processes counters the potential energy recovery in the sludge handling systems. Energy use in WWT processes is recommended to aim for sufficient effluent treatment, not for sludge reduction. Increased secondary sludge production is favourable from an energy point of view provided it is used as a substrate for heat, biogas or electricity production.

Keyword
Pulp and paper mills; wastewater treatment; sludge handling; bioenergy; sustainability.
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3850 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2009.02.041 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Energy efficient aeration of wastewaters from the pulp and paper industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficient aeration of wastewaters from the pulp and paper industry
2010 (English)In: Water Science & Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 62, no 10, 2364-2371 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More than 50% of the electrical power needed to treat pulp and paper industry effluents is used for aeration in biological treatment stages. A large share of the oxygen that passes through the wastewater is not consumed and will be found in the off-gas. Energy can be saved by aerating under conditions where the oxygen transfer is most efficient, for example at low concentrations of dissolved oxygen Consider the sludge as an energy source; electricity can be saved by avoiding sludge reduction through prolonged aeration. High oxygen transfer efficiency can be retained by using the oxygen consumption of biosolids. Quantified savings in the form of needed volumes of air while still achieving sufficient COD reduction are presented. The tests have been made in a bubble column with pulp mill process water and sludge from a biological treatment plant. These were supplemented with case studies at three pulp and paper mills

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: IWA, 2010
Keyword
aeration, biosolids concentration, DO, energy efficiency, oxygen transfer, pulp mill wastewaters
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-10416 (URN)10.2166/wst.2010.946 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2015-06-25Bibliographically approved
5. Chemical Flocculation for Energy Efficient Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical Flocculation for Energy Efficient Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Oxygen transfer rate, wood extractives, Chemical treatment, Surface tension
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Environmental and Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-13448 (URN)
Note
Part of the doctoral thesis "Efficient treatment of forest industrial wastewaters: Energy efficiency and resilience during disturbances".Available from: 2012-06-01 Created: 2012-06-01 Last updated: 2012-06-01Bibliographically approved

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