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Demographic Journeys along the Silk Road: Marriage, Childbearing, and Migration in Kyrgyzstan
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. (demography unit, sociology department)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis contributes to the limited demographic literature on Central Asia – the region through which led the great Silk Road – an ancient route of trade and cultural exchange between East and West. We focus on Kyrgyzstan and countries in its immediate neighborhood: Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. We analyze the dynamic interplay between marriage, childbearing, and migration, and examine fertility intentions and intentions to migrate as predictors of demographic outcomes. The thesis consists of four co-authored and one single-authored paper connected through a common theme of ethno-cultural differences in demographic behavior. In the first three studies, we explore the link between migration and family formation. We demonstrate that increased fertility of recent migrants is attributable to marriage-related resettlements. In paper four, we provide an analysis of intentions to move abroad. Our results suggest that ethnicity plays a significant role, independent of other factors, in determining migration plans and preferences, and detect ethnic-specific effects of marriage, childbearing, and social capital on the inclination to migrate. In paper five, we compare the fertility and fertility intentions of ethnic majority and minority groups in three neighboring countries of the region. We explain fertility differentials between ethnic groups in terms of the combined effects of their status in society, country-level differences in institutional settings, and historical and cultural factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2012. , 9 p.
Series
Dissertation series / Stockholm University Demography Unit, ISSN 1404-2304 ; 7
Keyword [en]
marriage, childbearing, migration, ethno-cultural differences, Kyrgyzstan
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Sociological Demography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75723ISBN: 978-91-86071-93-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-75723DiVA: diva2:523880
Public defence
2012-09-21, hörsal 4, hus B, Universitetsvägen 10 B, Stockholm, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-04-25 Last updated: 2015-06-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan
2007 (English)In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 17, no 25, 741-774 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the ‘Marriage, Fertility, and Migration’ survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becoming a parent after resettlement. We gain deeper insights into demographic behavior by considering information on factors such as the geographical destination of migration and retrospectively stated motives for reported moves. In addition, our study reveals clear ethno-cultural differences in the timing of entry into parenthood in Kyrgyzstan.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rostock · GERMANY: , 2007
Keyword
migration, first-time parenthood, Kyrgyzstan
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75886 (URN)10.4054/DemRes.2007.17.25 (DOI)000252132000007 ()
Available from: 2012-05-03 Created: 2012-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Marriage formation as a process intermediary between migration and childbearing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marriage formation as a process intermediary between migration and childbearing
2008 (English)In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 18, no 21, 611-628 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In studies of differences in fertility between migrants and non-migrants, marriage interferes because migration can be motivated by an impending marriage or can entail entry into a marriage market with new opportunities. One would therefore expect elevated fertility after migration, although a competing theory states that on the contrary fertility ought to be reduced in the time around the move because migration temporarily disturbs the life of the migrant. In any case marriage appears as a process that is intermediary between migration and childbearing. To handle such issues it pays to have a technique that allows the analyst to separate any disruptive effects of migration from any boosting effects of marriage in studies of childbearing. The purposes of the present paper are (i) to remind us that such a technique is available, in fact is straightforward, and (ii) to apply the technique to further analyze a set of data on migration and first-time parenthood in Kyrgyzstan recently used by the second author and Gunnar Andersson. The technique has the neat feature that it allows us to operate with several “clocks” at the same time. In the analysis of first births we keep track of time since migration (for migrants) and time since marriage formation (for the married) beside the respondent’s age (for women at childbearing ages); in other connections there may be more clocks. For such analyses we make use of a flexible graphical housekeeping device that allows the analyst to keep track of a feature like whether migration occurs before or after marriage, or at the same time. This is a half-century-old flow chart of statuses and transitions and is not much more complex than the famous Lexis diagram, which originated with Gustav Zeuner, as we now know. These reflexions were first presented at a symposium dedicated to Professor Zeuner.

Keyword
fertility, Kyrgyzstan, marriage, migration, multiple clocks, statuses-and-transitions flow chart
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-72943 (URN)
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependences
2010 (English)In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 22, no 7, 159-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we investigate interdependences between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In our analysis, we account for several duration dependences (‘clocks’). The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is the most important duration variable in the first-birth propensities model. Out-of-wedlock conception is associated with increased marriage risks prior to the childbirth. Migration is often a part of the family-formation process: High first-birth propensities of recent migrants, as well as high migration risks among pregnant women, are due to marriage-related migration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rostock · GERMANY: , 2010
Keyword
marriage, childbearing, migration, interdependences, Kyrgyzstan
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75891 (URN)10.4054/DemRes.2010.22.7 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-05-03 Created: 2012-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Eager to Leave? Intentions to Migrate Abroad among Young People in Kyrgyzstan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eager to Leave? Intentions to Migrate Abroad among Young People in Kyrgyzstan
2008 (English)In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 42, no 3, 620-651 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines young people’s intentions to migrate abroad in Kyrgyzstan, focusing in particular on differences between Asian and European-origin ethnic groups. The multivariate analyses of recent survey data show that even after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and social embeddedness Europeans are significantly more inclined to migrate than Asians. Whereas no gender differences in migration intentions among either group are detected, marriage, childbearing, and social capital exhibit distinct ethnic-specific effects. Although economic considerations are prevailing stimuli for migration in both groups, the results point to the formation of two dominant ethnic-specific migration preference types – for temporary migration among Asians and permanent migration among Europeans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: , 2008
Keyword
migration intentions, Kyrgyzstan
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Sociological Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75892 (URN)10.1111/j.1747-7379.2008.00140.x (DOI)
Available from: 2012-05-03 Created: 2012-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Achieved Fertility and Fertility Intentions among Ethnic Groups in Central Asia: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan Compared
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieved Fertility and Fertility Intentions among Ethnic Groups in Central Asia: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan Compared
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The literature on minority group status and fertility usually focuses on a within-country comparison of the behavior of population groups with different racial, ethno-cultural or religious backgrounds. Our study adds several dimensions to this approach. By comparing co-ethnics across three neighboring countries, we are able to sort out the separate roles of minority-group status, ethnicity, and country of residence in fertility behavior. The results of our analysis, based on survey data from three countries in Central Asia, show a strong country effect on achieved fertility and fertility intentions but only modestly negative effects of minority-group status on fertility in this region.

Keyword
ethnic minority; fertility; fertility intentions; Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Demography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75914 (URN)
Available from: 2012-05-03 Created: 2012-05-03 Last updated: 2012-05-07

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