Field torso-warming modalities: a comparative study using a human model
2009 (English)In: Prehospital Emergency Care, ISSN 1090-3127, Vol. 13, no 3, 371-378 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Objective: To compare four field-appropriate torso warming modalities, that do not require AC electrical power, using a human model of non-shivering hypothermia.
Methods: Five subjects, serving as their own controls, were cooled four times in 8ºC water, for 10-30 minutes. Shivering was inhibited by Buspirone (30 mg) taken orally prior to cooling and IV Meperidine (1.25 mg/kg) at the end of immersion. Subjects were hoisted out of the water, dried, insulated and then underwent 120 min of either: spontaneous warming only; a charcoal heater on the chest; two flexible hot water bags (total4 liters of water at55°C, replenished every 20 minutes) applied to the chest and upper back; or two chemical heat pads applied to the chest and upper back. Supplemental meperidine (maximum cumulative dose of 3.5 mg/kg) was administered as required to inhibit shivering.
Results: Post-cooling afterdrop was compared to spontaneous warming (2.2°C) less for chemical heat pads (1.5°C) and hot water bags (1.6°C, p < 0.05), and was1.8°C with the charcoal heater. Subsequent core rewarming rates, the hot water bags (0.7°C/h) and the charcoal heater (0.6°C/h), tended to be higher than chemical heat pads (0.2°C/h, p = 0.055) and was significantly greater than spontaneous warming (0.1°C/h, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: In subjects with shivering suppressed, greater sources of external heat were effective in attenuating core temperature afterdrop whereas sustained sources of external heat effectively established core rewarming. Depending on scenario and available resources, we advice to use charcoal heaters, chemical heat pads or hot water bags as effective means for treating cold patients in the field or during transport to definitive care.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2009. Vol. 13, no 3, 371-378 p.
Research subject Surgery
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-54277DOI: 10.1080/10903120902935348OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-54277DiVA: diva2:517560