Characterization of Male Breast Cancer: From Molecule to Clinical Outcome
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The aim of this thesis was to investigate different aspects of male breast cancer (MBC), and to compare these with findings in female breast cancer (FBC). In paper I, a population–based study was performed to investigate possible differences in treatment and outcome between MBC and FBC patients. MBC and FBC presented with a similar distribution of stage. Although no differences in primary treatment strategy were demonstrated, MBC patients had significantly poorer overall and relative survival, indicating a more aggressive disease. Paper II aimed to assess the value of clinicopathological factors and molecular subtypes in MBC. One hundred and ninety-seven MBC tumors were characterized using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the findings were correlated to outcome. Lymph node positivity, larger tumor size and ER-negativity were independent risk factors for breast cancer death. Tumor grade, HER2, Ki 67 or IHC classification into molecular subtypes did not demonstrate any prognostic information. In paper III, the same patient material as in paper II was used for evaluation of proliferation markers. High levels of cyclin A and cyclin B expression and an elevated mitotic count were predictive of breast cancer death. Ki-67 was re-evaluated using different cut-offs, but no prognostic value could be demonstrated. Contrarily, overexpression of cyclin D1 was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer death. In papers IV-V, the molecular background of MBC tumors was investigated. Global GEX analyses were performed and two novel subgroups of MBC tumors were identified; luminal M1 and luminal M2. When comparing the degree of similarity with the “intrinsic” subtypes in FBC tumors, more than half of the MBC tumors remained unclassified. Comparative genomic hybridization was used to investigate DNA aberrations. Two MBC subgroups were identified, of which one did not resemble any of the female subgroups. In both studies on the molecular level, a majority of patients were classified into the subgroup with a more aggressive tumor behavior. In conclusion, MBC seems to be a unique tumor entity. The established molecular subtypes in FBC are not applicable in MBC. Other prognostic profiles, specific for MBC, need to be identified.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 65 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 771
male breast cancer, immunohistochemistry, prognostic, cyclins, gene expression, genomic profiling
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject Oncology; Oncology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-172670ISBN: 978-91-554-8356-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-172670DiVA: diva2:515760
2012-06-02, Aulan, Ingång 21, Västmanlands sjukhus Västerås, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Hatschek, Thomas, Docent
Fjällskog, Marie-Louise, DocentBergkvist, Leif
List of papers