Gas Embolism in Laparoscopic Liver Surgery
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Laparoscopic liver surgery is complicated due to the structure of this organ with open sinusoids. A serious disadvantage is the risk of gas embolism (GE) due to CO2 pneumoperitoneum. CO2 can enter the vascular system through a wounded vein. A common opinion is that gas fluxes along a pressure gradient, e.g. CVP-intra abdominal pressure (IAP). The occurrence of GE could also be eased by entrainment, a ‘Venturi-like’ effect, due to cyclic differences in thoracic pressure and blood flow caused by mechanical ventilation at normal frequency.
The aims of these studies were to survey, in a porcine model, the influence on respiratory and haemodynamic variables by GE, to determine at what frequency, severity and duration GE occurs during laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and whether there are methods to influence the occurrence or severity of GE.
Pulmonary and circulatory variables were monitored and measured as well as continuous blood gas monitoring. Transoesophageal echocardiogram was used to identify GE and, according to the amount of bubbles in the right outflow tract of the heart, GE was graded as 0, 1 and 2. Pneumoperitoneum was created by using CO2and IAP was set to 16 mm Hg.
A single bolus dose of CO2 influenced respiratory and haemodynamic variables for at least 4 h. During LLR GE occurred in 65-70% of the animals, of which the more serious caused negative influence on cardiopulmonary variables.
Elevated PEEP (15 cm H2O) increased CVP but GE occurred irrespective if CVP was lower than or exceeded IAP. In two last studies, a hepatic vein was cut and left open for 3 m before it was clipped. Interestingly, no signs of GE were seen despite an open vein and IAP > CVP in 8 of 20 animals. In the last study high frequency jet ventilation was used in order to minimise the risk of entrainment. The duration of GE was shortened.
The occurrence of GE seemed to be influenced by several different factors. The physiological reaction of a GE is impossible to predict for a specific patient, and depends among other factors on comorbidity, and amount, site and entrance rate of GE.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 49 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 758
Gas embolism, laparoscopic liver, CVP, PEEP, high frequency jet ventilation, cardiopulmonary physiology, carbon dioxide
Research subject Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171797ISBN: 978-91-554-8325-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-171797DiVA: diva2:512807
2012-05-11, Enghoffsalen, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Tønnessen, Tor Inge, Prof.
Rubertsson, Sten, Prof.Arvidsson, Dag, Doc.
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