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Musculoskeletal Biomechanics in Cross-country Skiing
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6267-3847
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Why copy the best athletes? When you finally learn their technique, they may have already moved on. Using muscluloskeletal biomechanics you might be able to add the "know-why" so that you can lead, instead of being left in the swells.

This dissertation presents the theoretical framework of musculoskeletal modeling using inverse dynamics with static optimization. It explores some of the possibilities and limitations of musculoskeletal biomechanics in cross-country skiing, especially double-poling. The basic path of the implementation is shown and discussed, e.g. the issue of muscle model choice. From that discussion it is concluded that muscle contraction dynamics is needed to estimate individual muscle function in double-poling. Several computer simulation models, using The Anybody Modeling System™, have been created to study different cross-country skiing applications. One of the applied studies showed that the musculoskeletal system is not a collection of discrete uncoupled parts because kinematic differences in the lower leg region caused kinetic differences in the other end of the body. An implication of the results is that the kinematics and kinetics of the whole body probably are important when studying skill and performance in sports. Another one of the applied studies showed how leg utilisation may affect skiing efficiency and performance in double-poling ergometry. Skiing efficiency was defined as skiing work divided by metabolic muscle work, performance was defined as forward impulse. A higher utilization of the lower-body increased the performance, but decreased the skiing efficiency. The results display the potential of musculoskeletal biomechanics for skiing efficiency estimations. The subject of muscle decomposition is also studied. It is shown both analytically and with numerical simulations that muscle force estimates may be affected by muscle decomposition depending on the muscle recruitment criteria. Moreover, it is shown that proper choices of force normalization factors may overcome this issue. Such factors are presented for two types of muscle recruitment criteria.

To sum up, there are still much to do regarding both the theoretical aspects as well as the practical implementations before predictions on one individual skier can be made with any certainty. But hopefully, this disseration somewhat furthers the fundamental mechanistic understanding of cross-country skiing, and shows that musculoskeletal biomechanics will be a useful complement to existing experimental methods in sports biomechanics.

Abstract [sv]

Varför ska man kopiera de som är bäst inom sin idrottsgren? När man väl har lärt sig deras teknik så har de antagligen redan gått vidare. Vore det inte bättre att öka sin förståelse så att man kan ligga i framkant, istället för i svallvågorna? Med biomekaniska simuleringar som ett komplement till traditionella experimentella metoder finns möjligheten att få veta varför prestationen ökar, inte bara hur man ska göra för att öka sin prestation.

Längdskidåkning innehåller snabba och kraftfulla helkroppsrörelser och därför behövs en beräkningsmetod som kan hantera helkroppsmodeller med många muskler. Avhandlingen presenterar flera muskeloskelettära simuleringsmodeller skapade i The AnyBody Modeling System™ och är baserade på inversdynamik och statisk optimering. Denna metod tillåter helkroppsmodeller med hundratals muskler och stelkroppssegment av de flesta kroppsdelarna.

Avhandlingen visar att biomekaniska simuleringar kan användas som komplement till mer traditionella experimentella metoder vid biomekaniska studier av längdskidåkning. Exempelvis går det att förutsäga muskelaktiviteten för en viss rörelse och belastning på kroppen. Detta nyttjas för att studera verkningsgrad och prestation inom dubbelstakning. Utifrån experiment skapas olika simuleringsmodeller. Dessa modeller beskriver olika varianter (eller stilar) av dubbelstakning, alltifrån klassisk stil med relativt raka ben och kraftig fällning av överkroppen till en mer modern stil där åkaren går upp på tå och använder sig av en kraftig knäböj. Resultaten visar först och främst att ur verkningsgradsynpunkt är den klassiska stilen att föredra då den ger mest framåtdrivande arbete per utfört kroppsarbete, dvs den är energisnål. Men ska en längdlöpare komma så fort fram som möjligt (utan att bry sig om energiåtgång) verkar det som en mer modern stil är att föredra. Denna studie visar också att för att kunna jämföra kroppens energiåtgång för skelettmusklernas arbete mellan olika rörelser så krävs det en modell där muskler ingår. Andra studier som presenteras är hur muskelantagonister kan hittas, hur lastfördelningen mellan muskler eller muskelgrupper förändras när rörelsen förändras samt effekter av benproteser på energiåtgång.

Några aspekter av metoden presenteras också. Två muskelmodeller och dess inverkan på olika simuleringsresultat visas. En annan aspekt är hur muskeldekomposition och muskelrekryteringskriterium påverkar beräkningarna. Normaliseringsfaktorer för olika muskelrekryteringskriterium presenteras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. , 42 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1437
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76148ISBN: 978-91-7519-931-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-76148DiVA: diva2:512758
Public defence
2012-05-04, C3, C-building ent. 16, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Beräkningsbaserad biomekanik inom längdskidåkningen - möjligheter och begränsningar
Available from: 2012-03-30 Created: 2012-03-29 Last updated: 2017-05-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A musculoskeletal full‐body simulation of cross‐country skiing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A musculoskeletal full‐body simulation of cross‐country skiing
2008 (English)In: Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part P: J. Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 222, no 1, 11-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a measurement-driven, musculoskeletal, full-body simulation model for biomechanical analysis of the double-poling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing. DP is a fast and powerful full-body movement; therefore, it is interesting to examine whether inverse dynamics using static optimization is working for a musculoskeletal full-body model with high accelerations, a large range of motion, and realistic loads. An experiment was carried out to measure motion and pole force of a skier on a double-poling ergometer. Using the measurement data, a simulation model was implemented in the AnyBody Modeling System (AnyBody Technology A/S, Denmark). Experimental results of motion and pole force from the DP ergometer, and also simulation results of relative muscle force profiles, are presented. These results agree with results found in literature when the kinematics and external kinetics are similar. Consequently, it should be possible to use computer simulations of this type for cross-country skiing simulations. With a simulation model, it is possible to perform optimization studies and to ask and answer ‘what if’ questions. Solutions to such problems are not easy to obtain by traditional testing alone.

Keyword
biomechanics, double poling, ergometer, inverse dynamics
National Category
Applied Mechanics Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12912 (URN)10.1243/17543371JSET10 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-01-14
2. Performance optimization by musculoskeletal simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance optimization by musculoskeletal simulation
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Movement & Sport Sciences – Science & Motricité, ISSN 2118-5735, Vol. 75, 73-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper uses two examples, from cross country skiing and badminton, to illustrate the idea of using musculoskeletal simulation as a tool to understand and ultimately optimize sports performance. The results show that the analysis provides insight into the performances that cannot be obtained by other means, and it is advocated that this insight ultimately can lead to better coaching. The importance of “know-why” over “know-how” is stressed, and it is hypothesized that this may enable athletes to learn difficult techniques faster.

Abstract [fr]

Cet article s’appuie sur deux exemples, ski de fond et badminton, pour illustrer l’utilisation de la simulation musculo-squelettique comme un outil pour comprendre et finalement optimiser les performances sportives. Les r ́sultats montrent que l’analyse donne un aper ̧u des performances qui ne peuvent pas ˆtre obtenues par d’autres moyens, et il est pr ́conis ́ que cette id ́e peut finalement conduire ` un meilleur entraˆaınement. L’importance du (( savoir-pourquoi )) en plus du (( savoir-faire )) est soulign ́, et il est suppos ́ que cela pourrait permettre aux athl`tes d’apprendre plus rapidement des techniques difficiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Les Ulis, France: EDP Sciences, 2012
Keyword
Simulation, musculoskeletal model, sport, optimization
National Category
Applied Mechanics Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71022 (URN)10.1051/sm/2011122 (DOI)
Projects
Beräkningsbaserad biomekanik inom längdskidåkning - möjligheter och begränsningar
Note
This study has received support from the following sources: The Danish Advanced Technology Foundation, The Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports (Grant No. 168/09) and Active Sportswear A/S. The authors wish to thank the Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre for providing laboratory resources.Available from: 2011-09-27 Created: 2011-09-27 Last updated: 2015-01-14
3. Skiing efficiency versus performance in double-poling ergometry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skiing efficiency versus performance in double-poling ergometry
2013 (English)In: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 1025-5842, E-ISSN 1476-8259, Vol. 16, no 9, 987-992 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is on how leg utilisation may affect skiing efficiency and performance in double-poling ergometry. Three experiments were conducted, each with a different style of the double-poling technique: traditional with small knee range-of-motion and fixed heels (TRAD); modern with large knee range-of-motion and fixed heels (MOD1) and modern with large knee range-of-motion and free heels (MOD2). For each style, motion data were extracted with automatic marker recognition of reflective markers and applied to a 3D full-body musculoskeletal simulation model. Skiing efficiency (skiing work divided by metabolic muscle work) and performance (forward impulse) were computed from the simulation output. Skiing efficiency was 4.5%, 4.1% and 4.1% for TRAD, MOD1 and MOD2, respectively. Performance was 111, 143 and 149Ns for TRAD, MOD1 and MOD2, respectively. Thus, higher lower body utilisation increased the performance but decreased the skiing efficiency. These results demonstrate the potential of musculoskeletal simulations for skiing efficiency estimations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
AnyBody Modeling System; AviMes AD; biomechanics; cross-country skiing; impulse; musculoskeletal simulation
National Category
Applied Mechanics Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71027 (URN)10.1080/10255842.2011.648376 (DOI)000324612300008 ()
Projects
Beräkningsbaserad biomekanik inom längdskidåkning - möjligheter och begränsningar
Note

This study was sponsored in part by the Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports (Grant No. 168/09). The Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre provided laboratory resources.

Available from: 2011-09-27 Created: 2011-09-27 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Muscle decomposition and recruitment criteria influence muscle force estimates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Muscle decomposition and recruitment criteria influence muscle force estimates
2012 (English)In: Multibody system dynamics, ISSN 1384-5640, E-ISSN 1573-272X, Vol. 28, no 3, 283-289 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has recently been pointed out that muscle decomposition influence muscle force estimates in musculoskeletal simulations. We show analytically and with numerical simulations that this influence depends on the recruitment criteria. Moreover, we also show that the proper choices of force normalization factors may overcome the issue. Such factors for the minmax and the polynomial criteria are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2012
Keyword
force normalization factor, minmax optimization criteria, musculoskeletal simulation, polynomial optimization criteria
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71021 (URN)10.1007/s11044-011-9277-4 (DOI)000306734500005 ()
Projects
Beräkningsbaserad biomekanik inom längdskidåkning - möjligheter och begränsningar
Note

This study was sponsored in part by the Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports (Grant No. 168/09). The authors wish to thank the Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre for providing laboratory resources.

Available from: 2011-09-27 Created: 2011-09-27 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. A simulation study on the necessity of muscle contraction dynamics in cross-country skiing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation study on the necessity of muscle contraction dynamics in cross-country skiing
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Competitive cross-country skiing is considered to be a fast and powerful dynamic movement. It is unknown what level of complexity that is needed in a musculoskeletal model of a skiing movement, e.g. double-poling. Therefore, a simulation study is carried out to explore the influence of muscle model choice. The theoretical framework of two types of muscle models and their respective implementations are given. These models are a Hill-type model with contraction dynamics and a constant force model, respectively. Results show that it is necessary to incorporate muscle contraction dynamics to estimate individual muscle behaviour in double-poling. Moreover, it may be bad practice to model different body parts with different muscle models; the musculoskeletal system is not a collection of discrete uncoupled body parts and kinetic effects will propagate through the system.

Keyword
Double-poling, fast movements, Hill-type muscle, musculoskeletal model
National Category
Applied Mechanics Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75335 (URN)
Projects
Beräkningsbaserad biomekanik inom längdskidåkningen - möjligheter och begränsningar
Available from: 2012-02-26 Created: 2012-02-26 Last updated: 2015-01-14Bibliographically approved

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