Background The conventional ileostomy can be avoided. Many attempts have been performed. The first successful solution was the continent ileostomy- Kock pouch. The high rate of complications and revisions some experienced forced surgeon to try to restore the continence by the mechanism of the anus involving an ileal pouch. Both procedures afterwards documented excellent functional outcome, but the complication rates were not negligible and the long-term failure rate were increasing. Different surgical refinements were done and the risk factors for complications and failures were investigated as experience and materials increased.
Restoring of the integrity of anal function and the succsess of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis shadowed the practise of the forerunner: the continent ileostomy reservoir. This latter procedure was more demanding and seemed in the first year of ileal pouchanal anastomosis era to have significant more complications and revisional surgery. The worldwide adoption of the pelvic pouch decreased the need for the continent ileostomy and a vicious circle evolved. Today only few centres perform the procedure. Patients who are not suitable for ileal anal-pouch anastomosis are seldom offered the possibility of having a continent ileostomy.
Aims The aims of the study was to investigate surgical load, complications and long-term functional outcome and to define factors which affect these subjects in patients operated with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, continent ileostomy or both in one single surgical department during the same period and without any institutional learning curve, and furthermore, to compare and contrast the two options.
Material and methods From 1984 to 2005(7) 304 (315) patients were operated with IPAA at St. Olavs Hospital (earlier: Regional Hospital of Trondheim). From 1983 to 2002(7) 50 (65) patients had a continent ileostomy constructed.
This was an observational study in the scope of surveillance and quality assurance. All patients were offered a planed regularly annual outpatient clinic follow up programme including a prospective standardised interview on clinical outcome. This was a supplement to clinical investigation with endoscopy and consecutive documentation of complications and other factors affecting the patients’ health. Data were recorded in the medical chart. In this system, all patients had recorded dataset. However, the intervals between data recordings differ and the intervals increased by time. All inpatients data were included.
Standard descriptive statistical analysis and simple associations were undertaken. Handling longitudinal data with limited cases, varying time intervals was done in a Times Series Cross Sectional data model, analysed, and adjusted for several factors affecting functional outcome. Multivariable analysis was done.
Results The estimated failure rate at 20 years was 11.4% for ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and 11.6% for continent ileostomy. Salvage procedures rates were 31% vs. 38%, respectively (p=0.06). The salvage procedures in IPAA included local procedures and redoes with laparotomy. Salvage procedures in CI were related to the function of the nipple valve, mainly nipple valve sliding and less frequent stenosis or fistulas.
Complications rates were high. In pelvic pouch surgery, half of the patients would need re-operations in 20 years. Ten percentages had early anastomotic separation without septic complications. Four percentages had early pelvic septic complications. Fistulas and sepsis at the anastomotic site were the main severe complications, often leading to pouch failure. Closing of the loop ileostomy was accompanied with complications in six percentages. In the patients (48) who did not have a covering stoma the overall complications rate did not differ from those with a loop ileostomy, although nine needed a secondary stoma. Covering stoma seems to postpone anastomotic complications. Handsewn anastomosis had more strictures, but otherwise the complications rates were similar to stapled anastomosis. Patients having the diagnosis changed to Crohn`s diseases had more complications and higher failure rate. Early anastomotic complications were associated with long-term complications.
In patients with continent ileostomy the nipple valve sliding is the main cause of revision. One third needed revision once or several times. At 20 years follow-up, half of the patients would need surgery due to complications. Although many patients with CI need several revisions, all patients were continent at the last follow up with a stable intubation frequency of 3 – 5 per 24 hour.
The failure of the pelvic pouch is the end of severe complications. Two third of the failures had the pouch excision or permanent ileostomy with the pouch in situ. One third underwent a conversion to CI, with equal surgical and functional outcome as other patients with CI.
In IPAA, bowel movements at day were between 5-6 at day and 0-1 at night. The rates of more or less frequent incontinence were about 10%, and 41% and 55% had reported soling at day and night respectively. The long-term functional outcome did not deteriorate with time: ie. observational time, as an independent factor did not influence outcome. Factors influencing the outcome were found but the impact of gender, age, protective stoma, hand-sewn anastomosis and early complications were negligible. Pouchitis did significantly influence functional outcome negatively, but did not create deterioration over time.
Estimated pouchitis rate in IPAA was 43% for more than 20 years. The onset of the first pouchitis appears mostly in the 5-6 first years after surgery. The crude rate was 35% and 6% of the patients had chronic pouchitis. Severe/chronic pouchitis was associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis, but not with pyoderma gangrenousum or diagnosed joint affections. Idiopathic pouchitis were absent among patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. In continent ileostomy the rate of pouchitis was 26%. Conclusion
The complications in both the pelvic pouch surgery and the surgery of continent ileostomy are considerable. Although not similar the surgical load are in the same order of magnitude. For the continent ileostomy revisional surgery are to be expected. The failure rate of both procedures are high and in long-term similar. The long-term functional outcome are however stabile and excellent. The failed pelvic pouch can be converted to a continent ileostomy in selected and motivated patients. The entity of pouchitis is conflicting and has to be divided into several different entities both on clinical, constitutional and other differentiating features. Patients with PSC should be informed of a possible higher risk of severe and chronic pouchitis after IPAA.
Ulcerative colitis, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Crohn`s disease, Indeterminate