Microsystems Technology for Underwater Vehicle Applications
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The aim of this thesis work has been to investigate how miniaturization, such as microsystems technology, can potentially increase the scientific throughput in exploration of hard-to-reach underwater environments, such as the subglacial lakes of Antarctica, or other challenging environments, including cave systems and wrecks. A number of instruments and subsystems applicable to miniature submersibles have been developed and studied, and their potential to provide a high functionality density for size-restricted exploration platforms has been assessed.
To provide an onboard camera system with measurement capabilities, simulation and design tools for diffractive optics were developed, and microoptics realized to project reference patterns onto objects to reveal their topography. The influence of murky water on the measurement accuracy was also studied.
For longer-range mapping of the surroundings, and under conditions with even less visibility, the performance of a very small, high-frequency side-scanning sonar was investigated using extensive modeling and physical testing. In particular, the interference on the acoustic beam from tight mounting in a hull was investigated. A range in excess of 30 m and centimeter resolution were obtained.
Besides these systems, which can be used to navigate and map environments, a two-dimensional, thermal sensor for minute flows was developed. Measuring speed and direction of water flows, this sensor can aid in the general classification of the environment and also monitor the submersible’s movement. As the flow of waters in subglacial lakes is estimated to be minute, the detection limit and sensitivity were investigated.
Measurements of water properties are facilitated by the chip-based conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor system developed. Macroscopically, this is an essential oceanographic instrument with which salinity is determined. Contrary to what was expected, MHz frequencies proved to be advantageous for conductivity measurements.
Finally, sampling of water using an acoustically enriching microdevice, and even enabling return of pristine samples via the use of integrated latchable, high-pressure valves, was realized and evaluated. Particularly, investigations of the device’s ability to capture and hold on to microorganisms, were conducted.
Further developed and studied, these devices – as subsystems to miniature submersibles, or as stand-alone instruments – should enable exploration of previously unreachable submerged environments.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 88 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 914
Aquatic, Submersible, Underwater, Micro, Miniaturized, Sonar, Sidescan, Topography, Laser, Diffractive, Optics, Sampler, Particle, Microorganism, Acoustic, Enriching, Conductivity, Temperature, Depth, CTD, Flow
Engineering and Technology
Research subject Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171742ISBN: 978-91-554-8323-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-171742DiVA: diva2:512474
2012-05-11, Polhelmsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Polacksbacken, Uppsala, 10:15 (Swedish)
Köhler, Johan, Docent
Thornell, GregerNguyen, Hugo
ProjectsDeeper Access, Deeper Understanding (DADU)
List of papers