The over-all aim of the present study was to compare the results of treatment with curative intent, with conservative treatment in men with prostate cancer (PCa) without distant metastases.
In a population-based cohort in Sweden, the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was evaluated and the relative survival of men considered plausible candidates for treatment with curative intent was investigated.
We also evaluated the association between curative treatment and cause-specific mortality, and over-all as well as relative survival in men diagnosed with PCa with a serum PSA level between 20 and 100 ng/ml.
Due to the uncertainly of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in the diagnosis of PCa, we created a model for prostate imaging to increase the safety of guided Core Needle Biopsy (CNB) in men with suspect PCa, thereby improving staging.
Material and methods. The cohorts in the first three studies were prospectively included in a population-based register (the National Prostate Cancer Register). Study IV was a clinical study on patients included between 2010 and 2011.
Results. Regardless of Gleason Score, a positive relationship between survival and serum PSA level categories in patients with a PSA level> 4 ng/ml was found, but a paradoxical inverse relationship was observed in men with a PSA level < 4 ng/ml. Men with a well-differentiated tumour had a 5-year relative survival exceeding 100% regardless of treatment. The survival rate for moderately and poorly differentiated tumours was poor for men managed conservatively. The 10-year cause-specific mortality for patients with PSA 20-50 ng/ml was 36% for patients treated without and 13% for patients treated with curative intent. For patients with a PSA 50-100 ng/ml the 10-year cause-specific mortality was 55% for conservative and 20% for patients treated with curative intent.
PCa detection by CNB, magnetic resonance imaging (MR) with ADC (Apparent diffusion coefficient), magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET/CT) ¹¹C Acetate imaging applied to 10 sections of the prostate demonstrated clear conformity between MRI ADC mapping and postoperative findings, showing high specificity (87%) and sensitivity (95%).
Conclusion. The inverse relationship between relative survival and PSA at levels below 4 ng/ml should be considered when choosing a PSA cut-off level. Outcome differs little between conservative management and treatment with curative intent in men with localised well- to moderately differentiated tumours over a 10-yr period. For men with poorly differentiated tumours, on the other hand, choice of treatment is crucial for outcome. Treatment with curative intent is beneficial in the group of men with prostate cancer and PSA levels between 20 and 100 ng/ml without distant metastases. A combination of MRI , diffusion ADC and MRSI may provide an improved model for imaging of the prostate for targeted biopsy.
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 81 p.