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Understanding Crustal Volatiles: Provenance,  Processes and Implications
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of the provenance of crustal volatiles and the processes by which they are released is extremely important for the dynamics of magmatic systems. Presented here are the results of multiple investigations, which aim to understand magmatic volatile contamination from contrasting but complementary perspectives. The main methodologies used include He and C isotope values and CO2/3He ratios of volcanic gases and fluids; simulation of magma-carbonate interaction using high-pressure high-temperature experimental petrology; X-ray microtomography of vesiculated xenoliths and computer modeling.

Findings show that the contribution from upper crustal volatiles can be substantial, and is dependant on the upper crustal lithology on which a volcano lies, as well as the composition of the magma supplied. Carbonate dissolution in particular is strongly controlled by the viscosity of the host magma. The details of the breakdown of vesiculated xenoliths is complex but has wide reaching implications, ranging from the dissemination of crustally derived materials through a magma body to highlighting that crustal volatiles are largely unaccounted for in both individual volcano and global volatile budgets. In synthesizing the conclusions from each of the individual perspectives presented, I propose the contribution of volatiles from crustal sources to play a significant role in many geological systems. This volatile component should be taken into consideration in future research efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 37 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 912
Keyword [en]
crustal volatiles, helium, carbon, volcanic gases and fluids, xeno-pumice, magma-carbonate interaction, upper crustal contamination
National Category
Geochemistry Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171486ISBN: 978-91-554-8311-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-171486DiVA: diva2:511138
Public defence
2012-05-04, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, 752 36 Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-04-11 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2012-04-19
List of papers
1. Mantle versus crustal volatile sources along the Java – Bali segment of the Sunda arc, Indonesia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mantle versus crustal volatile sources along the Java – Bali segment of the Sunda arc, Indonesia.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Helium isotopes, carbon isotopes, Indonesia, volcanic gases and fluids, upper crustal volatile contamination, GAC, JAC
National Category
Geochemistry Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171478 (URN)
Available from: 2012-03-19 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2012-04-13
2. Concentration of commercially-viable geothermal resources in W-Java controlled by crustal thickness and composition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration of commercially-viable geothermal resources in W-Java controlled by crustal thickness and composition
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geochemistry Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171480 (URN)
Available from: 2012-03-19 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2012-04-13
3. Time-monitored vesiculation and dissolution during magma-carbonate interaction experiments: Merapi (Indonesia) and Vesuvius (Italy).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-monitored vesiculation and dissolution during magma-carbonate interaction experiments: Merapi (Indonesia) and Vesuvius (Italy).
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Merapi, Vesuvius, carbonate assimilation, volatile exsolution, carbon dioxide, viscosity, bubbles, vesicles
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171481 (URN)
Available from: 2012-03-19 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2012-04-13
4. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption
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2012 (English)In: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 3, no 1, 97-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e. g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment-covered ocean crust (e. g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of "restingolites" indicates that crustal recycling is a relevant process in ocean islands, too, but does not herald the arrival of potentially explosive high-silica magma in the active plumbing system beneath El Hierro.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus Publications, 2012
National Category
Geology Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171483 (URN)10.5194/se-3-97-2012 (DOI)000309884400008 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

Correction in Solid Earth. Vol. 3(2) p. 189. DOI: 10.5194/se-3-189-2012

Available from: 2012-03-19 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
5. A global record of xeno-pumice: evidence for magma-crust interaction and crustal volatile remobilisation.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A global record of xeno-pumice: evidence for magma-crust interaction and crustal volatile remobilisation.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
crustal volatiles, xenoliths, xeno-pumice, assimilation, contamination, explosive eruptive activity, X-ray microtomography, volcanic volatile budgets
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171484 (URN)
Available from: 2012-03-19 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2012-04-13
6. Sink or swim: The fate of crustal xenoliths in shallow magma chambers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sink or swim: The fate of crustal xenoliths in shallow magma chambers
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(English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
xenolith, magmatic stoping, assimmilation, magma contamination, pluton emplacement, magma chamber dynamics
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171485 (URN)
Available from: 2012-03-19 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2017-01-25

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