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The Use of 2D and 3D Displays in Military Settings
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the possibilities of using 3D perspective displays in different military settings, and to illustrate the limitations of 3D displays, that is, when 2D displays are to be preferred. More specifically, this thesis explores (a) readability during vibrations, (b) perception aspects on perspective aircraft displays, and (c) the value of spatial cues in 3D air traffic displays in military settings.

The results show, for example, that vertical vibrations influence recognition performance negatively. The recognition of 2D and 3D symbols, as well as judgment of relations between symbols on a 3D display, may indeed be an arduous task. Results, further, indicate improved performance for relation judgments between objects in 3D space in dynamic rather than static scenarios in tactical indicators. In situations where perception of a direction nevertheless is problematic, enhancements like, for example, drop-lines may improve performance.

From a practical point of view the goal has been to investigate the possibility to develop and use a 3D perspective display in an airplane like JAS 39 Gripen. A general conclusion is that 3D displays indeed can be used in many situations but it is important to seriously consider any possible limitations of 3D displays. The future work should be focused on implementing and testing the tactical display in a real setting with real military pilots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 106 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 76
Keyword [en]
visuell perception, 3D, displays, spatial cues
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169721ISBN: 978-91-554-8290-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-169721DiVA: diva2:507597
Public defence
2012-04-20, sal XI, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-03-29 Created: 2012-03-05 Last updated: 2012-04-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Readability of vertically vibrating aircraft displays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Readability of vertically vibrating aircraft displays
1999 (English)In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, no 1, 23-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vibrations pose a problem to the visual system. The vibrations in aircraft are mainly vertical and cause reading errors when the pilots read the instruments. In three experiments, reading capability was tested during vertical vibration of modern military aircraft, using symbols presented on a computer monitor. The results showed that complexity of symbols have a significant effect on the performance. The orientations of symbols were also of importance for their readability. Indexes made up of horizontally oriented lines were found to be especially difficult to read during vertical vibration. Orienting them 45° up or down improved readability in a significant way. The size of the symbols was found to be of importance especially when they were horizontally oriented.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-65643 (URN)10.1016/S0141-9382(98)00056-0 (DOI)000079274400004 ()
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
2. Perception aspects on perspective aircraft displays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perception aspects on perspective aircraft displays
2003 (English)In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 24, no 1, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This report presents two experiments in the area of perspective aircraft displays. The research focus was to explore the possibilities to understand symbolic and symbol relations in the 3D environment. In the first experiment the subjects' ability to distinguish between five different aircraft symbol shapes were investigated together with the perception of their heading in the 3D space. The perspective used in this experiment was egocentric. In the second experiment the judgment of the spatial relation between an own-ship symbol and a target symbol was investigated. Thus, in this case, the perspective was exocentric and two aspect angles were used for the camera position. Both experiments were carried out in non-dynamic scenarios. The display character was topographic with a superposed grid at the ground surface. The overall conclusion from the experiments is that judgment of direction in 3D presentations is very difficult in these static scenarios. Symbol recognition of 3D pictorial symbols is problematic for complicated symbol shapes as well, depending on different appearances for various symbol headings in the 3D space. 

Keyword
3D displays, symbol identification, spatial relations
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169713 (URN)10.1016/S0141-9382(02)00054-9 (DOI)000181363700001 ()
Available from: 2012-03-05 Created: 2012-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. The value of spatial cues in 3D air traffic displays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of spatial cues in 3D air traffic displays
2007 (English)In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 17, no 2, 109-129 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interest in implementing 3D pictorial displays for traffic information in aircraft has been prevalent for decades without any obvious implementation in the cockpit. Our research is focused on design issues for these displays. The purpose of the experiments discussed here was to investigate where and when additional spatial cues, e.g., drop-lines, could contribute to better performance and whether such additions could replace shifts between 2D and 3D presentation for different tasks. Our results show that drop-lines are beneficial in focused attention tasks but are not necessarily beneficial in more integrated tasks. This speaks to the need for an adaptive approach to the presentation of flight situation displays.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169717 (URN)000247738100001 ()
Available from: 2012-03-05 Created: 2012-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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