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Adaptation of road drainage structures to climate change
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment. (Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning och Biogeofysik)
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Climate change is expected to lead to more frequent extreme precipitation events, floods and changes in frost/thawing cycles. The frequency of road closures and other incidents such as flooding, landslides and roads being washed away will probably increase. Stronger demands will be placed on the function of road drainage systems.

The overall aim of this thesis was to produce scientifically well-founded suggestions on adaptation of road drainage systems to climate change involving more frequent floods. The work began by examining current practice for road drainage systems in Sweden and gathering experience from professionals working with various problems concerning surface and subsurface drainage systems. Various hydrological models were then used to calculate the runoff from a catchment adjacent to a road and estimate changes in peak discharge and total runoff resulting from simulated land use measures. According to these survey and hydrological modelling studies, adaptation of road drainage systems to climate change can be grouped into two categories: i) institutional adaptation; and ii) technical adaptation. The main approaches in institutional adaptation are to: i) raise the awareness of expected climate change and its impact on drainage systems in transport administration and relevant stakeholders; ii) include adaptation measures in the existing funding programme of the transport administration; and iii) develop an evaluation tool and action plans concerning existing road drainage systems. Technical adaptation will involve ensuring that road constructions are adapted to more frequent extreme precipitation events and responsive to changes in activities and land use in areas adjacent to roads.

Changes in climate variables will have effects on watershed hydrological responses and consequently influence the amount of runoff reaching roads. There is a great need for tools such as hydrological models to assess impacts on discharge dynamics, including peak flows. Improved communication between road managers and local actors in the forestry and agriculture sectors can be a means to reduce the impacts of, e.g., clear-cutting or badly managed farmland ditches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. , xvi, 29 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2061
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-90888OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-90888DiVA: diva2:507167
Presentation
2011-12-19, V1, Teknikringen 76, Stockholm, 10:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111214Available from: 2012-03-05 Created: 2012-03-02 Last updated: 2012-03-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Road drainage in Sweden: Current Practice and Suggestions for Adaptation to Climate Change
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Road drainage in Sweden: Current Practice and Suggestions for Adaptation to Climate Change
2013 (English)In: Journal of Infrastructure Systems, ISSN 1076-0342, E-ISSN 1943-555X, Vol. 19, no 2, 147-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes current practice in road surface and subsurface drainage in Sweden and analyzes the necessity for adaptation of the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and monitoring of road drainage measures to climate change. Based on a survey of professionals working with various aspects of road drainage, the study sought to identify: (1) problems experienced concerning road drainage, focusing on the current Swedish climate; (2) future problems regarding climate change impacts such as flooding and high flows; and (3) suggestions for adaptation measures concerning road drainage systems, taking future climate change into account. Suggested improvements concerning management and planning included clarification of responsibility for drainage issues, better overview of the location and condition of drainage facilities, inclusion of drainage system maintenance in procurement of operation contracts, maintenance plans for drainage facilities, and monitoring and inspection of drainage measures. Suggestions concerning drainage system construction, operation and maintenance included increasing the capacity of drainage facilities, stabilizing ditch slopes and various measures to prevent clogging of culverts.

Keyword
infrastructure, road transportation system, adaptation, operation and maintenance
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50105 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000119 (DOI)000318651800003 ()2-s2.0-84881269932 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130618

Available from: 2011-12-01 Created: 2011-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluating the effects of simulated land use changes on peak discharge of a catchment adjoining a road
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the effects of simulated land use changes on peak discharge of a catchment adjoining a road
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The consequences of heavy rainfall and other extreme weather events are strongly influenced by land use within watersheds. The tested catchment consists of arable land, forest, living areas, and a creek which crosses a main road at the bottom of the catchment. The theoretical hydrological responses to different land use changes and four different extreme events were quantified by model simulations using MIKE-SHE. Land use composition and configuration was found to affect discharge; clear-cutting on 30% of the catchment area produced a 60% increase in peak discharge and a 10% increase in total runoff during a 50-year summer event. There were only small effects on peak discharge during smaller storms. Reforestation of 60% of basin area was the most effective measure to reduce peak flow, mainly for smaller (2-, 5- and 10-year) storms. Grassed waterways reduced water velocity in the stream and resulted in a 28% reduction in peak flow at the catchment outlet with the same 50-year event. A smaller degree of reforestation (30%) of the basin area was the most efficient measure to decrease total runoff. Hence different measures may be the most efficient for peak discharges and total runoff from the area. The specific effect of land use measures on catchment discharge depends on their spatial distribution and on the size and time of storm events.

Keyword
extreme events, road infrastructure, hydrological model, runoff, land use change, road transportation system, adaptation, operation and maintenance
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-51587 (URN)
Note

QS 2011

Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-14 Last updated: 2016-03-16Bibliographically approved
3. Usefulness of four hydrological models in simulating high-resolution discharge dynamics of a adjacent to a road
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usefulness of four hydrological models in simulating high-resolution discharge dynamics of a adjacent to a road
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Four hydrological models (LISEM, MIKE SHE, CoupModel and HBV) were compared with respect to their capability to predict peak flow in a small catchment upstream of a road in SE Norway on an hourly basis. All four models were calibrated using hourly observed streamflow. Simulated and observed discharge generated during three types of hydrological situations characteristic of winter/spring conditions causing overland flow were considered: snowmelt, partially frozen soil and heavy rain events. Using parameter sets optimised for winter/spring conditions, flows simulated by HBV coupled with CoupModel were comparable to measured discharge from the catchment in corresponding periods. However, this combination was best when all the parameters were calibrated in HBV. For ungauged basins with no real-time monitoring of discharge and when the spatial distribution is important, MIKE SHE may be more suitable than the other models, but the lack of detailed input data and the uncertainty in physical parameters should be considered. LISEM is potentially capable of calculating runoff from small catchments during winter/spring but requires better description of snowmelt, infiltration into frozen layers and tile drainage. From a practical road maintenance perspective, the usefulness and accuracy of a model depends on its ability to represent site-specific processes, data availability and calibration requirements.  

Keyword
extreme events, road infrastructure, hydrological model, runoff
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-51586 (URN)
External cooperation:
Note

QC 20160912

Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-14 Last updated: 2016-09-12Bibliographically approved

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