Biomass Potential for Heat, Electricity and Vehicle Fuel in Sweden
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
The main objective of this thesis was to determine how far a biomass quantity, equal to the potential produced within the Swedish borders, could cover the present energy needs inSwedenwith respect to economic and ecological circumstances. Three scenarios were studied where the available biomass was converted to heat, electricity and vehicle fuel. Three different amounts of biomass supply were studied for each scenario: 1) potential biomass amounts derived from forestry, non-forest land, forest industry and community; 2) the same amounts as in Case 1, plus the potential biomass amounts derived from agriculture; 3) the same amounts as in Case 1, plus 50% of the potential pulpwood quantity.
For evaluating the economic and ecological circumstances of using biomass in the Swedish energy system, the scenarios were complemented with energy, cost and emergy analysis.
The scenarios indicated that it may be possible to produce 170.2 PJ (47.3 TWh) per year of electricity from the biomass amounts in Case 2. From the same amount of biomass, the maximum annual production of hydrogen was 241.5 PJ (67.1 TWh) per year or 197.2 PJ (54.8 TWh) per year of methanol.
The energy analysis showed that the ratio of energy output to energy input for large-scale applications ranged from 1.9 at electric power generation by gasification of straw to 40 at district heating generation by combustion of recovered wood. The cost of electricity at gasification ranged from 7.95 to 22.58 €/GJ. The cost of vehicle work generated by using hydrogen produced from forestry biomass in novel fuel cells was economically competitive compared to today’s propulsion systems. However, the cost of vehicle work generated by using methanol produced from forestry biomass in combustion engines was rather higher compared to use of petrol in petrol engines.
The emergy analysis indicated that the only biomass assortment studied with a larger emergy flow from the local environment, in relation to the emergy flow invested from society after conversion, was fuel wood from non-forest land. However, even use of this biomass assortment for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuels had smaller yields of emergy output in relation to emergy invested from society compared to alternative conversion processes; thus, the net contribution of emergy generated to the economy was smaller compared to these alternative conversion processes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae , 2006. , 441 p.
, Acta Universitatis Sueciae, ISSN 1652 ; 6880
bioenergy potential, biomass potential, cost analysis, emergy, energy analysis, energy scenarios, systems analysis, thermochemical conversion
Research subject SRA - Energy
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-85623ISBN: 91-576-7060-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-85623DiVA: diva2:500244
2006-03-03, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Loftet, Duhrevägen 8, 756 51 UPPSALA, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Mitchell, Paul, Professor
Hillring, Bengt, DocentNilsson, Per Olov, Professor emeritusGustafsson, Leif, Professor emeritus
QC 201202172012-02-172012-02-132012-02-17Bibliographically approved