Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Snake Gourds, Parasites and Mother Roasting: Medicinal plants, plant repellents, and Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae) in Lao PDR
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. (Ethnobotany)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background. Traditional plant use was studied in Lao PDR. Research focused on medicinal plant use by the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups, traditional plant repellents against parasitic arthropods and leeches, and the phylogeny and biogeography of the medicinally-important snake gourd genus (Trichosanthes, Cucurbitaceae).  Methods. The ethnobiology research used a combination of structured interviews, village surveys, botanical collecting, hydro-distillation, GC-MS analysis, literature studies, and laboratory experiments. The plant systematics research used a combination of morphological studies, molecular biology laboratory work, and phylogenetic, dating and biogeographical analysis.  Results. Informants reported the use of close to 100 species to repel arthropods and leeches, many of which have constituents with documented efficacy.  Brou, Saek and Kry informants use over 75 plant species for women’s healthcare, mainly during the postpartum period for steam sauna, steam bath, hotbed, mother roasting, medicinal decoctions and infusions, and postpartum diet.  A molecular phylogeny of Trichosanthes and Gymnopetalum using a broad sampling of ~60% of their species and 4756 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA shows that Gymnopetalum is nested within Trichosanthes. Fossil-calibrated Bayesian molecular dating of the Trichosanthes phylogeny reveals an early Oligocene origin of the genus, and many of the extant sections originating and diversifying during the Miocene. Biogeographical analysis shows a likely East or South Asian origin of Trichosanthes, with lineages diversifying and spreading throughout Australasia from the early Pliocene to the Pleistocene.  Discussion. Traditional plant use in Lao PDR is common and widespread. The presence among the repellent species of economical alternatives to costly synthetic repellents is tenable, and the subject of ongoing studies.  Postpartum traditions and medicinal plant use are essential parts of childbirth and postpartum recovery in these ethnic groups, and many other groups in Lao PDR. Efforts to improve maternal healthcare and reduce maternal and infant mortality need to integrate these traditions with modern notions of healthcare to achieve wider adoption. Documenting all possible uses of commonly used medicinal plant species shows that similarity in use between these ethnic groups is relatively low considering that they share, and have shared for many generations, the same environment and resources. A lack of effective cures leads to a process of continuous innovation, where effective cures are shared between cultures, but remedies of only cultural importance, or those under evaluation are culture-specific.  The Trichosanthes phylogeny implies the merging of Gymnopetalum into Trichosanthes, and this is done using available names or new combinations. A synopsis of Trichosanthes, the new combinations, and a revision of the species in Australia, are made and presented.  Conclusions. Traditional plant use is widespread in Lao PDR, and of significance to many people as a source of primary healthcare and inexpensive repellents. The important medicinal plant genus Trichosanthes includes Gymnopetalum, and has a complex biogeographic history with multiple colonization events of Australasia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 59 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 901
Keyword [en]
Trichosanthes, Ethnobotany, Similarity of Knowledge, Biogeography, Molecular Dating, Brou, Saek, Kry, Mother roasting, Postpartum healthcare, Parturition, Childbirth, Traditional Medicine, Plant repellents, Fermented fish
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Systematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168536ISBN: 978-91-554-8281-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-168536DiVA: diva2:499682
Public defence
2012-03-30, Lindahlsalen, Norbyvägen 18, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-03-02 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2012-03-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups
2009 (English)In: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, ISSN 1746-4269, Vol. 5, 25- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare.

Methods

Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers.

Results

A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group.

Conclusion

Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Systematic Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141785 (URN)10.1186/1746-4269-5-25 (DOI)000207918700025 ()19737413 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-01-12 Created: 2011-01-12 Last updated: 2015-08-17Bibliographically approved
2. Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR
2011 (English)In: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, ISSN 1746-4269, E-ISSN 1746-4269, Vol. 7, 14- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods: Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results: A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions: Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare.

National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156106 (URN)10.1186/1746-4269-7-14 (DOI)000291981800001 ()
Available from: 2011-07-11 Created: 2011-07-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: Practices and Chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: Practices and Chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery
2011 (English)In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 11, 128- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents.

Methods: Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene.

Conclusions: Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath cleansing of the perineal area is possibly a pragmatic use of the reported medicinal plants, as terpene constituents have documented antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-149972 (URN)10.1186/1472-6882-11-128 (DOI)000299843900001 ()
Available from: 2011-03-24 Created: 2011-03-24 Last updated: 2012-03-29Bibliographically approved
4. Comparing medicinal plant knowledge using similarity indices: A case of the Brou, Saek and Kry in Lao PDR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing medicinal plant knowledge using similarity indices: A case of the Brou, Saek and Kry in Lao PDR
2012 (English)In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 141, no 1, 481-500 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

known traditional ecosystem services, as it provides primary healthcare, contributes to subsistence livelihoods, and for its potential value as a source of novel pharmaceuticals. People living in close contact with their surroundings for many generations are hypothesized to have developed, through trial-and-error, in-depth knowledge of ecosystems, biodiversity, and their management and utility. In the case of medicinal plant knowledge it could lead to an asymptotic climax or a constantly evolving equilibrium of cures with proven efficacy and those under assessment.Methods: An in-depth study of 97 plant species used in traditional medicine by the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups in Lao PDR was made to test similarity in medicinal plant knowledge.Results: Medicinal plants were used in 99 different ways in 510 species-use combinations. Medicinal uses could be generalized into 12 use categories with 747 species-category combinations. Similarity indices show Brou and Saek plant use appears to be most similar (QS(BS): 60.0; JI(BS): 75.1) followed by Kry and Saek (QS(KS): 51.6; JI(KS): 53.4), and then Kry and Brou (QS(BK): 46.9; JI(BK): 44.1).Discussion: Intercultural similarities found are quite low, considering that all three groups share the same geographical and ecological area and have the same dependence on medicinal plants. Intercultural transmission is unimpeded but many treatments are likely to be ineffective. Comparison of the similarities found here with similarities computed from other data show that these results are homologous with other sympatric ethnic groups, and much higher than those for allopatrically living groups.Conclusion: Medicinal plant knowledge does not reach a stable climax, but appears to evolve continually by trial-and-error, as effective cures to many ailments are unavailable.

Keyword
Traditional plant medicine, Ethnobotany, Traditional ecological knowledge, knowledge similarity, Similarity indices, Jaccard, Sorensen
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168534 (URN)000304571100061 ()
Note
Manuscript title: Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Similarity of medicinal plant knowledge among the Brou, Saek and Kry in Lao PDRAvailable from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Botanical Repellents and Pesticides Traditionally Used Against Hematophagous Invertebrates in Lao People's Democratic Republic: A Comparative Study of Plants Used in 66 Villages
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Botanical Repellents and Pesticides Traditionally Used Against Hematophagous Invertebrates in Lao People's Democratic Republic: A Comparative Study of Plants Used in 66 Villages
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Journal of medical entomology, ISSN 0022-2585, Vol. 47, no 3, 400-414 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hematophagous parasites such as leeches, ticks, mites, lice, bedbugs, mosquitoes, and myiasis-producing fly larvae are common health problems in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Several arthropod-borne infections, e.g., malaria, dengue fever, and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic there. Effective vector control methods including the use of pesticides, insecticide-treated bed nets, and synthetic and plant-based repellents are important means of control against such invertebrates and the pathogens they may transmit or directly cause. In this study, we documented traditional knowledge on plants that are used to repel or kill hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, bedbugs, human lice, mites and ticks, fly larvae, and blood-sucking leeches. Structured interviews were carried out in 66 villages comprising 17 ethnic groups, covering a range of cultures, throughout Lao People's Democratic Republic. A total of 92 plant species was recorded as traditional repellents (including plants for pesticidal usages) in 123 different plant-ectoparasite combinations. The number and species of plants, and animal taxa repelled (or killed) per plant species differed per region, village, and ethnic group. Traditional use was confirmed in the scientific literature for 74 of these plant species, and for an additional 13 species using literature on closely related species. The use of botanical repellents and pesticides from many plant species is common and widespread in the Lao countryside. In the future, the identification of the active components in certain plants to develop more optimal, inexpensive repellents, insecticides, acaricides, or antileech compounds as alternatives to synthetic repellents/pesticides against blood-feeding insects, ticks, mites, and leeches is warranted.

Keyword
botanical repellents, ethnobotany, leeches, mosquitoes, myiasis
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-136563 (URN)10.1603/ME09273 (DOI)000277597000015 ()20496588 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-12-14 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2012-03-29
6. A Fly in the Ointment: Evaluation of Traditional Use of Plants to Repel and Kill Blowfly Larvae in Fermented Fish
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Fly in the Ointment: Evaluation of Traditional Use of Plants to Repel and Kill Blowfly Larvae in Fermented Fish
2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 12, e29521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomyamegacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae) are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit) onto fermenting fish which results ininfestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish iscommon and widespread in Lao PDR.

Research Questions: How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish?

Material and Methods: The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical surveythroughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality andrepellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. Ohashi (Fabaceae), Uraria crinita (L.) Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae) and Bambusa multiplex(Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae) were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane,Lao PDR.

Results: The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, issignificantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidaleffect combined) for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh materialof T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%,and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively.

Discussion and Conclusions: The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the productionof fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars.

National Category
Agricultural Sciences Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-149968 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0029521 (DOI)000298665600041 ()
Available from: 2011-03-24 Created: 2011-03-24 Last updated: 2015-08-11Bibliographically approved
7. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: A case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: A case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae)
2012 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 12, 108- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes) and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed). Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes.

Results

Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent.

Conclusions

Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant-pollinator mutualisms.

National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167012 (URN)10.1186/1471-2148-12-108 (DOI)000312133600001 ()
Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
8. Synopsis of Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae) based on recent molecular phylogenetic data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synopsis of Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae) based on recent molecular phylogenetic data
2012 (English)In: PhytoKeys, ISSN 1314-2011, E-ISSN 1314-2003, Vol. 12, 23-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The snake gourd genus, Trichosanthes, is the largest genus in the Cucurbitaceae family, with over 90 species. Recent molecular phylogenetic data have indicated that the genus Gymnopetalum is to be merged with Trichosanthes to maintain monophyly. A revised infrageneric classification of Trichosanthes including Gymnopetalum is proposed with two subgenera, (I) subg. Scotanthus comb. nov. and (II) subg. Trichosanthes, eleven sections, (i) sect. Asterospermae, (ii) sect. Cucumeroides, (iii) sect. Edulis, (iv) sect. Foliobracteola, (v) sect. Gymnopetalum, (vi) sect. Involucraria, (vii) sect. Pseudovariifera sect. nov., (viii) sect. Villosae star. nov., (ix) sect. Trichosanthes, (x) sect. Tripodanthera, and (xi) sect. Truncata. A synopsis of Trichosanthes with the 91 species recognized here is presented, including four new combinations, Trichosanthes orientalis, Trichosanthes tubiflora, Trichosanthes scabra var. pectinata, Trichosanthes scabra var. penicaudii, and a clarified nomenclature of Trichosanthes costata and Trichosanthes scabra.

National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168535 (URN)10.3897/phytokeys.12.2952 (DOI)000305779400002 ()22645411 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
9. A taxonomic revision of Trichosanthes L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Australia, including one new species from the Northern Territory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A taxonomic revision of Trichosanthes L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Australia, including one new species from the Northern Territory
2011 (English)In: Austrobaileya : a journal of plant systematics, ISSN 0155-4131, Vol. 8, no 3, 364-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trichosanthes is represented by six species in Australia: T cucumerina L. var. cucumerina,T morrisii W.E.Cooper sp. nov., T odontosperma W.E.Cooper & A.J.Ford, T pentaphylla F.Muell. ex Benth., T pilosa Lour. and T subvelutina F.Muell. ex Cogn. Trichosanthes ovigera Blume has recently been synonymised with T pilosa and we now include T holtzei F.Muell. within this synonymy. All taxa are illustrated (with the exception of T odontosperma previously illustrated in 2010), and distinguished from other Australian species. Notes on habitat and distribution are included together with distribution maps. Three identification keys are presented, two to the sections of Trichosanthes and one to the species of Trichosanthes in Australia.

National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-165982 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-10 Created: 2012-01-10 Last updated: 2012-12-17Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2483 kB)1811 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2483 kBChecksum SHA-512
006e5e0595135598caaa284904a9ab957eed4bc6ba62d6f49885003f0d48ee7fcc564d4b024a1f761b325824cac6044468d14cf3ecb3ec6a0da5a9d7e07ed7fd
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Buy this publication >>

Authority records BETA

de Boer, Hugo J.

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
de Boer, Hugo J.
By organisation
Systematic Biology
Biological Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 1811 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 949 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf