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Marine biogenic polysaccharides as a potential source of aerosol in the high Arctic: Towards a link between marine biology and cloud formation
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . (Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Primary marine aerosol particles containing biogenic polymer microgels play a potential role for cloud formation in the pristine high Arctic summer. One of the major sources of the polymer gels in Arctic aerosol was suggested to be the surface water and more specifically, the surface microlayer (SML) of the open leads within the perennial sea ice as a result of bubble bursting at the air-sea interface.  Phytoplankton and/or ice algae are believed to be the main origins of the polymer gels. In this thesis, we examine the chemical composition of biogenic polymers, with focus on polysaccharides, in seawater and airborne aerosol particles collected during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) in the summer of 2008. The main results and findings include:

  • A novel method using liquid chromatography coupling with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and applied for identification and quantification of polysaccharides.
  • The enrichment of polysaccharides in the SML was shown to be a common feature of the Arctic open leads. Rising bubbles and surface coagulation of polymers are the likely mechanism for the accumulation of polysaccharides at the SML.
  • The size dependencies of airborne polysaccharides on the travel-time since the last contact with the open sea are indicative of a submicron microgel source within the pack ice.  The similarity of polysaccharides composition observed between the ambient aerosol particles and those generated by in situ bubbling experiments confines the microgel source to the open leads.

The demonstrated occurrence of polysaccharides in surface sea waters and in air, with surface-active and hygroscopic properties, has shown their potential to serve as cloud condensation nuclei and subsequently promote cloud-drop activation in the pristine high Arctic. Presumably this possibility may renew interest in the complex but fascinating interactions between marine biology, aerosol, clouds and climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University , 2012. , 27 p.
Keyword [en]
Polysaccharides, Biogenic polymer microgels, Arctic Ocean, LC/MS/MS, Surface microlayer, Marine aerosol particles, Remote marine cloud condensation nuclei
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-72433ISBN: 978-91-7447-446-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-72433DiVA: diva2:497692
Public defence
2012-03-30, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of doctoral defence, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: ManuscriptAvailable from: 2012-03-08 Created: 2012-02-10 Last updated: 2012-02-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Characterization of exopolysaccharides in marine colloids by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of exopolysaccharides in marine colloids by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection
2010 (English)In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 662, no 2, 193-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method was established using capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection for analysis of monosaccharides liberated from exopolysaccharides by acidic hydrolysis. Tangential flow filtration was used to isolate high molecular weight polysaccharides from seawater. The capillary electrophoresis method included the use of a background electrolyte consisting of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Several neutral sugars commonly existing in marine polysaccharides were separated under optimized conditions. The relative standard deviations were between 1.3% and 2.3% for relative migration time and 1.3-2.5% for peak height. Detection limits (at S/N 3) were in the range of 27.2-47.8 mu M. The proposed approach was applied to the analysis of hydrolyzed colloidal polysaccharides in seawater collected from the Baltic Sea. Nanomolar levels of liberated monosaccharides in seawater samples can be detected by preconcentration up to 30,000 times.

Keyword
Exopolysaccharide, Capillary electrophoresis, Extracellular polymeric substances, Marine colloid
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-50052 (URN)10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.008 (DOI)000275340600010 ()
Note
authorCount :4 Available from: 2010-12-30 Created: 2010-12-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Monosaccharide compositional analysis of marine polysaccharides by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monosaccharide compositional analysis of marine polysaccharides by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
2011 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 399, no 7, 2517-2529 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A simple and sensitive method was developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for determination of monosaccharides liberated from marine polysaccharides by acidic hydrolysis. Optimal separation of diastereomeric monosaccharides including hexoses, pentoses, and deoxyhexoses was achieved using an aminopropyl bonded column with mobile phase containing ternary solvents (acetonitrile/methanol/water) in conjunction with MS/MS in SRM mode. Mechanisms for fragmentation of deprotonated monosaccharides with regard to cross-ring cleavage were proposed. Matrix effects from coeluting interferences were observed and isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to compensate for the signal suppression. The method demonstrated excellent instrumental limits of detection (LOD), ranging from 0.7 to 4.2 pg. Method LODs range from 0.9 to 5.1 nM. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of polysaccharides in seawater collected from the open leads of the central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2008.

Keyword
Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, Tandem mass spectrometry, Monosaccharides, Polysaccharides, Marine microcolloids, Marine gels
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry; Biophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67919 (URN)10.1007/s00216-010-4638-z (DOI)000287141700024 ()
Note
authorCount :4Available from: 2012-01-03 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3.
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4. Size-resolved polysaccharides in summer high Arctic aerosol relevant to cloud formation.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Size-resolved polysaccharides in summer high Arctic aerosol relevant to cloud formation.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-72527 (URN)
Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2012-02-14Bibliographically approved

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