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Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Efficient waste management enables the protection of human health, reducing environmental pollution, saving of natural resources, and achieving sustainable and profitable management of energy. In many countries, the general guidelines for waste management are set by national or local waste management plans. Various models provide local authorities with decision-making tools in planning long-term waste management scenarios.This study aims at providing a special model framework for the evaluation of ecological–economic efficiency (ECO-EE) of waste management. This will serve as an information support tool for decision making by actors of a solid waste management (SWM) scheme, primarily at the municipal and regional levels. The objective of this study is to apply the waste management’s efficient decision (WAMED) model along with the company statistical business tool for environmental recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER) model to SWM and municipal solid waste (MSW) schemes in general in order to evaluate and improve their ECO-EE. COSTBUSTER is a mathematical indicator for the size and extent of implementation costs of a certain SWM scheme, compared with the total size of the average financial budget of a SWM actor of a certain kind. In particular, WAMED is proposed for evaluating the suitability to invest in baling technology. Baling of solid waste is an emerging technology which is extensively used worldwide to temporarily store waste for either incineration or recovery of raw materials. The model for efficient use of resources for optimal production economy (the EUROPE model) is for the first time applied to emissions from baling facilities. It has been analysed how cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and full cost accounting (FCA) can facilitate environmental optimisation of SWM schemes. The effort in this work represents a continuation of such ambitions as an enlargement of the research area of CBA based modelling within SWM. In the thesis, certain theoretical and economic aspects of SWM were analysed as case studies. A shift of viewpoints within the field of waste management is presented. This shift is in accordance with the prevailing concept of sustainable development, as commonly understood. It is concluded that in the practical SWM context, the findings of the study point at the possibilities to modify the common CBA- and FCA-based methods by WAMED, COSTBUSTER, and EUROPE. Therefore, it can be said that estimations in a SWM scheme can be carried out by using certain economic model, if properly modified in a logical and plausible way. New principles for cost allocation to SWM residual products are presented in the current work. They imply strong industrial cost saving incentives through promoting the introduction of new and improved processing technologies for rest-waste. Such incentives then strongly promote investments that are likely to improve both the environment and the corporate profitability. Thereby, the occurrence of non-commercialised, and hence not utilized, wastes is reduced. This improves the short term corporate economy through saving raw materials such as solid waste fuel, spending less time for administrating waste flows, and less wear and tear of the plant machinery. Additional environmental advantages which affect the balance sheets in a favourable way are related to the long-term business economy and extended environmental goodwill. This is due to the recently introduced way of considering solid waste as regular goods in financial terms - the equality principle. If waste is seen as goods, and not wasted in landfills, the environment will improve. This, in turn, leads to an improved quality of life. Based on the current study, it is recommended to apply WAMED to SWM schemes in order to evaluate their ECO–EE to justify decision making and investments. Also, it is recommended to apply COSTBUSTER, based on the current WAMED outcome, to SWM schemes to determine their relative size and extent. It is recommended to apply EUROPE to the emissions in case of accidental burning, treatment of leachate, andabatement with odours at any SWM scheme, based on the induced economic incentives, in order to reduce unwanted substances and phenomena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press , 2012.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 76/2012
Keyword [en]
Economic models, economic incentives, solid waste management (SWM) schemes, baling economics, municipal solid waste (MSW) management, ecological– economic efficiency (ECO-EE), cost-benefit analysis (CBA), full cost accounting (FCA) analysis, the WAMED model, the COSTBUSTER model, the EUROPE model.
National Category
Environmental Management Business Administration
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Economy, Business administration; Economy, Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17329ISBN: 978-91-86983-30-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-17329DiVA: diva2:491571
Public defence
2012-02-24, Fullriggaren, Sjöfartshögskolan, Barlastgatan 11, Kalmar, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-07 Created: 2012-02-06 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Solid waste management by application of the WAMED model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid waste management by application of the WAMED model
2010 (English)In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 12, no 2, 169-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to develop a general model for the evaluation of ecological–economic efficiency that will serve as an information support tool for decision making at the corporate, municipal, and regional levels. It encompasses cost–benefi t analysis in solid waste management by applying a sustainability promoting approach that is explicitly related to monetary measures. A waste managements’efficient decision (WAMED) model based on cost–benefit analysis is proposed and developed to evaluate the ecological–economic efficiency of solid waste management schemes. The employment of common business administration methodology tools is featured. A classification of competing waste management models is introduced to facilitate evaluation of the relevance of the previously introduced WAMED model. Suggestions are made for how to combine the previously introduced EUROPE model, based on the equality principle, with the WAMED model to create economic incentives to reduce solid waste management-related emissions. A fictive case study presents the practical application of the proposed cost–benefit analysis-based theory to the landfilling concept. It is concluded that the presented methodology reflects an integrated approach to decreasing negative impacts on the environment and on the health of the population, while increasing economic benefits through the implementation of solid waste management projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2010
Keyword
Solid waste management, Cost–benefit analysis, Decision making, Ecological–economic efficiency, Full cost accounting
National Category
Environmental Management Business Administration
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Economy, Economics; Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17271 (URN)10.1007/s10163-009-0285-x (DOI)2-s2.0-77954399054 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-02-04 Created: 2012-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Solid waste management baling scheme economics methodology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid waste management baling scheme economics methodology
2011 (English)In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), ISSN 2079-2115, E-ISSN 2079-2123, Vol. 2, no 2, 104-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A cost structure is proposed for evaluating and improving the ecological-economic efficiency of baling sub-scheme units within solid waste management schemes that end with, for example, incineration for heat and power production. The methodology proposed employs the previously introduced WAste Managements’ Efficient Decision model (WAMED) and the COmpany STatistical BUSiness Tool for Environmental Recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER). The previously introduced equality principle and the Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE) model are applied so to in monetary terms express the emissions in case of bale related fire (sol), pollutions from leachate (liq) and odour (g) at a scheme. Previously, the EUROPE model has been applied to residuals from producing industry, the construction sector and whole landfills. A case study presents the practical application of the proposed methodology. It is concluded that the presented novel methodology for evaluation and improvement of the ecological-economic efficiency of solid waste baling management schemes simultaneously decreases the negative impact on the environment and the health of the population, provides the foundation of an investment appraisal support tool for the implementation of solid waste management projects and enables comparative analysis of estimated, actual and prevented monetary damages from the implementation of baling plant units.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IDOSI Publications, 2011
Keyword
Solid waste management baling plants, Pollution, COSTBUSTER model, The equality principle, The EUROPE model
National Category
Environmental Management Business Administration
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Economy, Business administration; Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17275 (URN)
Available from: 2012-02-04 Created: 2012-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Physical and chemical processes in baled waste fuel, with emphasis on gaseous emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical and chemical processes in baled waste fuel, with emphasis on gaseous emissions
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2003 (English)In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 21, no 4, 309-317 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over a period of seven months, the temperature and the emissions from six cylindrical and two rectangular stored bales containing waste for later use as fuel were measured. The bales were kept at two different ranges of temperatures: 30-35˚C and 20-25˚C respectively. It was foundthat only the rectangular bales showed significant productionof CO2. The increase of emission for one of the rectangular bales kept at 30-35˚C, was 0.246% vol. CO2 per day for a 2-week period, after which there was a decrease of CO2 concentrations at a rate of 0.0224% vol. during a 32-week period. The other rectangular bale kept at 20-25˚C, exhibited a similar trend. However, the increase of CO2 concentrations was less at a rate of 0.0259% vol. per day during a 8-week period, after which the CO2 emission decreased at a rate of 0.0224% vol. per day during a 25-week period. All the bales exhibited aerobic decomposition in the sampling point. However, on measuring the leachate concentrations, it was evident that the bales were actually in the equivalent acid-generating phase of a young landfill. The temperature inside the bales did not increase higher than the ambient air temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2003
Keyword
Baling, waste fuels, emissions, leachate, waste decomposition, oxygen consumption, CO2 emission
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17277 (URN)10.1177/0734242X0302100404 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-02-04 Created: 2012-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Emissions from a controlled fire in municipal solid waste bales
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions from a controlled fire in municipal solid waste bales
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2004 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 24, no 1, 9-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental and safety aspects of seasonal storage of baled municipal solid waste to be used as fuel for energy production (waste fuel), was investigated and experiments were carried out on burning of bales. The flammability, combustion processes and emissions were studied by simulating, in small-scale, potential effects of a possible fire in full-scale bale storage area. Despite the high water content and the high density of the bales, after setting fire, the bales burned well, even though no risk for self-ignition exists. The following parameters of the combustion product were measured continuously: O2, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx,THC, smoke gas rate and the temperature of the smoke. Soot particles in the smoke were collected and analysed for Hg, Pb, Cd, As,Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co, Sb and V concentrations. The analysis of the moisture content, concentrations of Hg, Cd, HCl, HF, HBr, NH3, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and brominated dioxins (PCDD/F and PBrDD/F, respectively) were carried out. It was found that the PCDD/F levels (TEQs) varied according to the system used: 12.53 ng (I-TEF-88)/Nm3; 14.09 ng (I-TEF-99)/Nm3;13.86 ng (Eadons)/Nm3. The PAH concentration was 3.04 mg/Nm3. The contents of the metals in the smoke (with the exceptions of Pb and Cd with mean values of 1.74 and 0.36 mg/m3, respectively) were below the limit values established by the Swedish Ministry ofEnvironment for emissions from incineration plants [Swedish Ministry of Environment, (2002:1060), Förordning 2002:1060 omavfallsförbränning. Available from http://www.notisum.se/rnp/SLS/LAG/20021060.HTM]/EU-directive [(2000/76/EC), Directive 2000/76/EC, of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the Incineration of Waste. http://www.Scotland.gov.uk/library5/environment/iecda.pdf]. The HCl concentration was 10 times higher than the limit value (mean value of 99 mg/m3).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2004
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17278 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2003.08.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-02-04 Created: 2012-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Baled MSW and associated problem, in the context of fire hazard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Baled MSW and associated problem, in the context of fire hazard
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2002 (English)In: Recovering Energy from Waste: Various Aspects / [ed] Grover, V.I., Grover, V.K., and Hogland, W., Science Publishers Inc., 2002, 223-245 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Science Publishers Inc., 2002
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17279 (URN)1578082005 (ISBN)978-1578082001 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-02-04 Created: 2012-02-04 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved
6. Application of the WAMED Model to Landfilling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of the WAMED Model to Landfilling
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 10, no 1, 62-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A cost methodology is proposed for evaluating the ecological-economic efficiency of a municipal solid waste management scheme based on the recommendations of cost-benefit analysis and the full-cost accounting methodology for municipal solid waste management. The methodology employs the previously introduced waste managements' efficient decision (WAMED) model and the company statistical business tool for environmental recovery (COSTBUSTER) indicator. A case study presents the practical application of the proposed cost-benefit analysis-based theory to the landfilling concept currently applied in Kalmar, Sweden. It is concluded that the presented provisions for evaluation of the ecological-economic efficiency of a municipal solid waste management scheme reflect a novel integrated approach to solving the problem of simultaneously decreasing the negative impacts of municipal solid waste on the environment and the health of the population while providing an information support tool for decision making in municipal solid waste management at regional and municipal levels to improve small-and medium-sized company competitiveness in particular.

Keyword
Cost–benefit analysis, Landfilling, MSW, ECO–EE
National Category
Business Administration Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Natural Science, Environmental Science; Economy, Business administration; Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-1898 (URN)10.1007/s10163-007-0186-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-04-06 Created: 2010-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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