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Computational Models of Eye Movements in Reading: A Data-Driven Approach to the Eye-Mind Link
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology. (Datorlingvistik, Computational Linguistics)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates new methods for understanding eye movement behavior in reading based on the use of eye tracking corpora and data-driven modeling. Eye movement behavior is characterized by two basic, generally unconscious, decisions: where and when to move the eyes. We explore the idea that empirical eye movement data carries rich information about the processes that guide these decisions. Two methods are investigated, each addressing a different aspect of eye movements in reading. The role of prediction in eye movement modeling is emphasized, and new evaluation methods for assessing the predictive accuracy of models are proposed. 

The decision of where to move the eyes is approached using standard machine learning methods. The model proposed learns where to move the eyes under different conditions associated with the words being read. Applied to new text, the model moves the eyes in ways it has learnt, showing characteristics similar to human readers. Furthermore, we propose the use of entropy to measure the similarity between observed and predicted eye movement behavior on held-out data. The main contribution is a flexible model, with few fixed parameters, that can be used to investigate decisions about where the eyes move during reading.     

The decision of when to move the eyes is approached using time-to-event modeling (survival analysis). The model proposed learns the timing of eye movements under different conditions associated with the words being read. Applied to new text, the model estimates the probability that a fixation survives for any given length of time. We propose an entropy-related measure to assess the probabilistic temporal predictions of the model. The main contribution is the use of Cox hazards modeling to address questions about the strength, as well as the timing, of processes that influence the decision of when to move the eyes during reading.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2012. , 59 p.
Series
Studia Linguistica Upsaliensia, ISSN 1652-1366 ; 11
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Computational Linguistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167403ISBN: 978-91-554-8263-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-167403DiVA: diva2:484385
Public defence
2012-03-10, Sal IX, Universitetshuset, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Learning Where to Look: Modeling Eye Movements in Reading
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning Where to Look: Modeling Eye Movements in Reading
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL), Association for Computational Linguistics , 2009, 93-101 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computational Linguistics, 2009
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Computational Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111983 (URN)978-1-932432-29-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL), Boulder, USA,, June 4-5, 2009
Available from: 2010-01-05 Created: 2010-01-05 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved
2. Towards a Data-Driven Model of Eye Movement Control in Reading
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Data-Driven Model of Eye Movement Control in Reading
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics, Association for Computational Linguistics , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computational Linguistics, 2010
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Computational Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-129662 (URN)
Conference
ACL 2010, Uppsala, Sweden, July 11–16, 2010
Available from: 2010-08-20 Created: 2010-08-20 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved
3. Entropy-Driven Evaluation of Models of Eye Movement Control in Reading
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entropy-Driven Evaluation of Models of Eye Movement Control in Reading
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International NLPCS Workshop, 2011, 201-212 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Computational Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167395 (URN)
Conference
The 8th International NLPCS Workshop, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 20--21, 2011
Available from: 2012-01-26 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved
4. A Survival Analysis of Fixation Times in Reading
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Survival Analysis of Fixation Times in Reading
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics (ACL 2011), 2011, 107-115 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Computational Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167396 (URN)
Conference
The 2nd Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics (ACL 2011), Portland, Oregon, USA, June 23
Available from: 2012-01-26 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved
5. Time-Varying Effects on Eye Movements during Reading
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-Varying Effects on Eye Movements during Reading
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Computational Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167397 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-26 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2013-04-02

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