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Situation-aware vehicles: supporting the next generation of cooperative traffic systems
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES))
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless communication between road vehicles enables a range of cooperative traffic applications including safety, efficiency and comfort functions. A common characteristic of the envisioned applications is that they act on environmental information to intepret traffic situations in order to provide the driver with warnings or recommendations. In this thesis we explore both the detection of hazardous traffic situations in order to provide driver warnings but also the detection of situations in which the cooperative system itself may fail.

The first theme of this thesis investigates how traffic safety functions that incorporate cooperatively exchanged information can be constructed so that they become resilient to failures in wireless communication. Inspired by how human drivers coordinate with limited information exchange, the use of pre-defined models of normative driver behavior is investigated by successfully predicting driver turning intent at an intersection using mobility traces extracted from video recordings. Furthermore a hazardous driving warning criterion based on model switching behavior is proposed and evaluated through test drives. Maneuvers classified as hazardous in the tests, such as swerving between lanes and not braking for traffic lights, are shown to be correctly detected using the criterion. Whereas robust coordination mechanisms may mask communication faults to some degree, severe degradations in communication are still expected to occur in non-line-of-sight conditions when using wireless communication at 5.9 GHz.

The second theme of the thesis explores how communication performance can be efficiently logged, gathered and aggregated into maps of communication quality. Both in-network aggregation as well as centralized aggregation is investigated using vehicles in the network as measurement probes and the feasibility of the approach in terms of bandwidth and storage requirements is shown analytically. In conjunction with a proposed communication quality requirements format, tailored specifically for vehicle-to-vehicle applications, such maps can be used to enable application-level adaptation in response to situations where quality requirements likely cannot be met.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2012. , 47 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 52
National Category
Natural Sciences Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21338ISBN: 978-91-7668-846-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-21338DiVA: diva2:483963
Public defence
2012-02-12, Högskolan i Halmstad, Hörsal Wigfors, Halmstad, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Safety Considerations for Cooperating Vehicles using Wireless Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety Considerations for Cooperating Vehicles using Wireless Communication
2007 (English)In: The 5th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 2007, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE , 2007, 995-1000 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Even though improvements in automotive safety have caused a significant decline in the number of traffic fatalities there is a strong need for further work. One important area is wireless communication from vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure which enables a host of new cooperative traffic applications ranging from collision avoidance to intelligent cruise control. However, using cooperation between vehicles as an enabler for safety-related functionality raises new issues on system dependability. In this paper we characterize the domain of cooperating vehicles and cooperative situation awareness and suggest a system architecture that promotes independent development and verification of safety functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2007
Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1935-4576 ; 5
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21423 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2007.4384910 (DOI)000252372900165 ()2-s2.0-39749199497 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-10-17
2. Model-based estimation of driver intentions using particle filtering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based estimation of driver intentions using particle filtering
2008 (English)In: 11th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2008. ITSC 2008, IEEE , 2008, 1177-1182 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Proactive vehicle alert systems that warn the driver about dangerous situations must be able to reason about, and predict, likely future states of the traffic environment. Our prediction method is based on a combination of a fuzzy logic model for intersection turning behavior and Gipps model for car following behavior. The stochastic models are used together with a particle filter to recursively approximate the state probability distribution as measurements are received over time. Estimates of the unobservable part of the state are used to predict path choice and thus driver intentions. The approach is evaluated on trajectory data gathered from video footage of an intersection, however it is also relevant for trajectories acquired through vehicle-to-vehicle communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2008
Keyword
Vehicle alert systems, Prediction method
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21425 (URN)10.1109/ITSC.2008.4732623 (DOI)000262929300197 ()2-s2.0-60749090048 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-2111-4 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Beijing, China, October 12-15, 2008
Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-10-17
3. Act normal: Using uncertainty about driver intentions as a warning criterion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Act normal: Using uncertainty about driver intentions as a warning criterion
2009 (English)In: Proc. 16th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2009, 8- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cooperative safety using vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication enables warning systems to take into account more detailed and longer range information than previously possible. Due to the increased prediction horizon factors that influence driver behaviour, such as traffic rules and driver intentions, must be modelled in addition to short term kinematics traditionally used in driver alert systems.We propose a cooperative warning system that models such factors using artificial potential fields taking into account multiple hypotheses regarding driver intentions. A prototype has been implemented and has been used to experimentally evaluate the feasibility of using the history of driver intention estimates as an indicator of unpredictable driver behavior.

National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21426 (URN)
Conference
16th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS WC), 21-25 September, 2009, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
4. Cooperative communication disturbance detection in vehicle safety systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative communication disturbance detection in vehicle safety systems
2007 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, 2007. ITSC 2007, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE , 2007, 522-527 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Proactive vehicle safety systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle and infrastructure-to- vehicle communication are promising new approaches to reducing the number of accidents on our roads. In-vehicle applications are envisaged to provide a variety of services to the driver including warning about potential collisions and other hazardous situations. For the safe operation of these applications it is important not only to efficiently model the environment but also to reason about, and predict, how reliable such a model is under various circumstances. In this paper we propose an approach to estimating the reliability and availability of the wireless medium at hazardous locations by cooperatively detecting communication disturbances in order to allow for more accurate decisions by in-vehicle applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2007
Keyword
collision avoidance, road accidents, road safety, traffic engineering computing, wireless sensor networks
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21428 (URN)10.1109/ITSC.2007.4357777 (DOI)000253972100153 ()2-s2.0-49249095807 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-1396-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
5. A spatial QoS requirements specification for V2V applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A spatial QoS requirements specification for V2V applications
2010 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2010, Piscataway, NJ.: IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, 548-553 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communication is a key component of tomorrow’s cooperative safety applications. However, the wireless link is susceptible to effects such as shadowing which can cause communication failures. Such failures may in turn lead to hazardous traffic situations when safety applications cease to function. By monitoring communication QoS and adapting to changes, effects of link failure may be mitigated, however this requires a specification of the application QoS requirements. In this paper we combine the T-Window reliability QoS metric with a spatial component, allowing us to capture the dependencies between VANET QoS requirements and road geometry. The proposed representation can be used both at design-time, to characterize applications, and at run-time for QoS monitoring and adaptation purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ.: IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
Series
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, ISSN 1931-0587 ; 2010
Keyword
mobile radio, quality of service, road safety, telecommunication links, vehicles
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21429 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2010.5548092 (DOI)2-s2.0-77956496105 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-7866-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium University of California, San Diego, CA, USA June 21-24, 2010
Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
6. Enabling adaptation in cooperative vehicles by mapping the radio environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling adaptation in cooperative vehicles by mapping the radio environment
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents how requirements on vehicle-to-vehicle communication quality and coverage can be expressed and monitored in a cooperative traffic system. The aim is to enable radio environment awareness and create applications that can adapt earlier to communication failures caused mainly by static obstacles such as terrain or buildings. A mechanism for collaborative mapping of experienced communication quality is proposed as well as a method for comparing the resulting radio map to the application requirements using a novel communication requirements specification format that takes both coverage and message inter-arrival time into account. The mapping procedure utilizes logs of periodically broadcasted cooperative awareness messages sent by vehicles and does not require any new inter-vehicle message types or contents. Vehicles upload logs for centralized aggregation and Bloom filters are used to reduce log size and upload bandwidth requirements. Results from packet-drop measurements in urban and rural scenarios in conjunction with analytical bounds on log and map size show that cooperatively mapping the radio environment is feasible. Although the main aim is on-line adaptation the proposed scheme is also applicable during application design stages and as a decision support tool for road-side unit deployment.

National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21431 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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