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B cell deviations and type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. (Kristina Lejon)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the insulin producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are selectively attacked by the immune system. The β-cells are destroyed resulting in a reduced or eliminated insulin production, which in turn lead to a high blood glucose level. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is the most commonly used animal model for human T1D. NOD mice develop diabetes spontaneously through a process that closely resembles the human pathogenesis. In both humans and the NOD mouse, disease is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In the NOD mouse, more than 30 insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) loci on 15 chromosomes have been linked to disease susceptibility, however, most of the Idd-regions lack identification of a disease associated gene. B cells are required for T1D development, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully revealed. The aim of this thesis was to dissect B cell-related immune deviations in the NOD mouse, including the underlying genetics of these traits.

The TACI receptor binds two ligands, i.e. the cytokines BAFF and APRIL.TACI ligation by APRIL mediates class switch, drives plasma cell differentiation and increases immunoglobulin production. In Paper I, a novel NOD-specific B cell-related trait was identified, i.e. the increased percentage of TACIhigh-expressing splenic B cells, by comparing NOD mice with non-autoimmune disease prone C57BL/6 mice. To investigate if the described TACI trait was controlled by genes linked to any Idd-region, an Idd-focused linkage analysis was performed. The TACI-trait mapped to regions on chromosome 1 and 8, more specifically to the vicinity of the Idd5.4 and Idd22. Interestingly, the linkage to Idd22 was explained by mice ≥61 days of age, suggesting a temporal genetic regulation of TACI expression possibly influenced by the ongoing autoimmune process. In Paper II, the linkage of the TACI trait to chromosome 1 and 8 was confirmed by analyzing the percentage of TACIhigh-expressing B cells in congenic NOD.C1/Idd22 mice. Moreover, the functional consequence of TACI upregulation was investigated, with the focus on plasma cell development and immunoglobulin production. NOD splenic B cells stimulated with APRIL displayed increased numbers of plasma cells and produced higher amounts of IgG and IgA compared to B cells from C57BL/6 mice. Thus, the TACI upregulation on NOD B cells possibly contribute to a B cell compartment which is more disposed to plasma cell differentiation and isotype switch.

NOD mice display enhanced and prolonged immune response towards several antigens, including non-self immunoglobulins. In Paper III, the genetic factor(s) controlling the altered immune response against a BALB/c derived monoclonal antibody were dissected. Significant linkage to the Idd1/Idd24, Idd12, and Idd18.1 regions as well as to a proximal region on chromosome 2 (33.5 Mb) was detected. The linkage to Idd1/24 was verified by analyzing a set of H2-congenic NOD and C57BL/6 mice, and the linked region was narrowed down to ~8 Mb. Candidate gene analysis revealed a significant difference in the transcription of the H2-O/DO molecule. This suggests that multiple mechanisms contribute to the loss of immune response control, including an altered MHC class II peptide loading on NOD B cells.

In Paper IV, a novel B cell intrinsic receptor for IgM and IgG was revealed. The receptor appeared to be more abundant in NOD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, as the level of extramembranous IgG monomers and IgM pentamers on peripheral blood B cells from NOD mice was significantly higher compared to C57BL/6 mice. In addition, analysis of immune complex binding using IgG- or IgM-opsonized bacterial particles revealed a higher degree of binding in NOD mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. The enhanced capture of immunoglobulins and immune complexes could thus contribute to the development of T1D by altering normal B cell functions such as activation and immune complex transportation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2012. , 70 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1476
Keyword [en]
Type 1 diabetes, Autoimmunity, NOD mouse, Idd, TACI, Immune response, Immune complex
National Category
Immunology
Research subject
Immunology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51509ISBN: 978-91-7459-360-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-51509DiVA: diva2:482622
Public defence
2012-02-17, E04, byggnad 6E, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-27 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2012-01-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Idd-linked genetic regulation of TACIhigh expressing B cells in NOD mice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idd-linked genetic regulation of TACIhigh expressing B cells in NOD mice
2007 (English)In: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, E-ISSN 1095-9157, Vol. 29, no 2-3, 116-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In NOD mice, B cells play a key role in the initiation of type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We have identified a novel NOD-specific B cell-related trait, i.e. the increased percentage of TACI(high)-expressing splenic B cells, by comparing NOD mice with non-autoimmune C57BL/6 mice. Using athymic NOD mice, we determined that this trait was T cell independent. We mapped the loci contributing to the increased proportion of TACI(high) expressing splenic B cells and found that the control of TACI expression was strongly linked to chromosome 1, in a region which includes the insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) 5 loci. Moreover, another locus potentially involved was detected in the vicinity of Idd22 on chromosome 8. Interestingly, when analyzing age-dependent contribution to the obtained LOD scores we observed that the linkage to chromosome 8 was explained solely by mice > or =61 days of age, suggesting a temporal genetic regulation of TACI expression. In addition, analysis of genetic interaction between chromosome 1 and chromosome 8 indicated that the two loci acted in an additive fashion. Our findings corroborate the notion that B cell deviations contribute to type 1 diabetes development, and suggest a temporal regulation of TACI(high) expression, possibly influenced by the ongoing autoimmune process.

Keyword
B cell; Genetics; NOD mouse; Temporal genetic regulation; TACI
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-21138 (URN)10.1016/j.jaut.2007.05.005 (DOI)17656068 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Increased expression of TACI in the NOD mouse results in enhanced plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased expression of TACI in the NOD mouse results in enhanced plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

B cells have an important pathogenic role in the development of Type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse. We have previously revealed a novel NOD-specific B cell-related trait, i.e. an increased percentage of TACIhigh-expressing B cells in NOD mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. In the NOD mouse the TACI trait is regulated by genes residing on chromosome 1 and 8, more specifically in the vicinity of the Idd5.4 and Idd22 regions. It has previously been demonstrated that TACI ligation by APRIL influences plasma cell differentiation, immunoglobulin production and isotype switch. In this paper the linkage of the TACI trait to chromosome 1 and 8 was confirmed by analyzing the percentage of TACIhigh-expressing B cells in congenic NOD.B6C1/Idd22 mice. Moreover, the functional concequence of TACI upregulation, with the focus on plasma cell development and immunoglobulin production, was investigated. NOD B cells stimulated with APRIL showed an increased plasma cell differentiation and enhanced IgM, IgG and IgA production compared to B cells from C57BL/6 mice. This supports the hypothesis that increased TACI expression on NOD B cells could contribute to the B cell involvement in the pathogenesis of T1D in the NOD mouse.

Keyword
NOD, TACI, Idd, APRIL, plasma cell, immunoglobulin
National Category
Immunology
Research subject
Immunology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51422 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-23 Last updated: 2012-01-27Bibliographically approved
3. The prolonged and enhanced immune response in the non-obese diabetic mouse is dependent on genes in the Idd1/24, Idd12 and Idd18 regions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The prolonged and enhanced immune response in the non-obese diabetic mouse is dependent on genes in the Idd1/24, Idd12 and Idd18 regions
2010 (English)In: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, E-ISSN 1095-9157, Vol. 35, no 4, 375-382 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice B cells are an absolute requirement for T1D development. NOD mice display various B cell related immune deviations when compared to normal mice such as an enhanced and prolonged immune response towards several antigens, including non-self immunoglobulins. We hypothesized that this trait contributes to diabetes pathogenesis, and investigated the genetic factor(s) governing the altered immune response. A (NODxC57BL/6)F(2) cohort (n = 214) were analyzed for its primary immune response against a BALB/c derived monoclonal antibody, and a genome wide linkage analysis was performed. Significant linkage to the Idd1/Idd24, Idd12 and Idd18.1 regions as well as to a proximal region (marker D2Mit367, 33.5 Mb) on chromosome 2 was detected. We verified the observed linkage by analyzing a set of H2 congenic NOD and C57BL/6 mice and narrowed down the region to 8 Mb. Interaction between Idd1/24 and Idd12, as well as the novel locus on chromosome 2 was observed. However, the action by Idd18.1 was not influenced by any of the other loci. In addition to the known H2 I-Aβ(g7) allelic variant of Idd1 in NOD, candidate gene analysis revealed a significant difference in the transcription of the H2-O/DO molecule. We hypothesize that multiple mechanisms contribute to the loss of immune response control, including that peptide loading on MHC class II in B cells of NOD is altered.

Keyword
NOD; Idd; B cell; Immune response; H2-O
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-41996 (URN)10.1016/j.jaut.2010.08.002 (DOI)000284567700011 ()20843661 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-04-04 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Enhanced capture of extramembranous IgM and IgG on B cells in the NOD mouse: implications for immune complex trapping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced capture of extramembranous IgM and IgG on B cells in the NOD mouse: implications for immune complex trapping
2009 (English)In: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 21, no 5, 533-541 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Binding of various antibody isotypes to B cells through either FcgammaRs or complement receptors has been attributed to play several roles, e.g. in immune complex (IC) transportation and regulation of B cell receptor signaling. We have revealed a novel B cell intrinsic receptor for IgM and IgG which is present in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and is more abundant in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. As a consequence, the level of extramembranous IgG monomers and IgM pentamers on peripheral blood B cells from NOD mice was significantly higher compared with B6 mice. The effect of this aberration was that all B cells in peripheral blood of (NOD.IgH(a) x B6(IgH(b)))F(1) mice carried both IgM allotypes on their surface. In addition, analysis of IC binding using IgG- or IgM-opsonized bacterial particles revealed a higher degree of binding in NOD mice compared with B6. We hypothesize that this novel Ig-binding receptor is part of the normal immune system function. The aberrant function in the NOD mouse could contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes by altering normal B cell functions such as activation, IC transportation and B cell homeostasis.

Keyword
antibodies, autoimmunity, diabetes, immune complex, rodent
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-21134 (URN)10.1093/intimm/dxp024 (DOI)19299625 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved

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