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RF Channel Characterization in Industrial, Hospital and Home Environments
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. (Communication Systems)
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid development of electronic components has resulted in the emergence of newmobile applications targeted at industry and hospital sectors. Moreover, a lack of availablewireless frequencies as result of the growth of wireless systems is becoming a problem.In this thesis we characterize industrial and hospital environments in order to provide theknowledge necessary to asses present and future development of critical wireless applications.Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of using TV white space by analysingthe interference from secondary to primary user in home environments.

Some of the wireless solutions used in industries and hospitals come directly fromsystems designed for home or office, such asWLAN and Bluetooth. These systems are notprepared to handle problems associated with interference of impulsive character found inindustrial processes and electrical systems.

Typically, industrial environments have been classified as reflective environments dueto the metallic structure present in the buildings. In this thesis, we demonstrate that althoughthis may be generally true, some locations in the industry may have special propertieswith wave propagation characteristics in the opposite direction. Stored materials canabsorb wireless signals, resulting in a coverage problem. From the measurement campaignwe are able to distinguish three main classes of indoor environments (highly reflective,medium reflective and low reflective) with different propagation characteristics.

Improving spectrum efficiency can be a solution to the growing demand for wirelessservices and can increase a system’s robustness against interference, particularly in criticalapplications in industrial and hospital environments. One improvement in spectrum efficiencycan be for secondary consumers to reuse unassigned portions of the TV spectrum ata specific time and geographical location. This thesis studies the effect of inserting whitespace devices in the TV broadcast spectrum. Note that any new model must state the maximumpower allocated to secondary users to avoid harmful interference with the primarysignal.

The content of this thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is the most comprehensiveand addresses electromagnetic interference and multipath characterization ofindustrial environments. In this part, we have developed a method for channel characterizationfor complex electromagnetic environments and have produced results from differentindustrial environments. The second part presents a preliminary study that characterizesthe electromagnetic interference in a hospital environment. The third part is a study ofsecondary users reusing the TV white spaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , xiii, 65 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 1203
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-61343OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-61343DiVA: diva2:478976
Presentation
2012-02-14, 99131, Kungsbäckvägen 47, Gävle, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120119Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2012-01-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Ultra-Wideband Propagation Channel-Measurements and Simulations in Industrial Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra-Wideband Propagation Channel-Measurements and Simulations in Industrial Environments
Show others...
2010 (English)In: 9th International Symposium on EMC joint with 20th International Wroclaw Symposium on EMC, 2010, 615-618 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The coverage area and reliability of wireless applications in industrial environments can be limited by electromagnetic interference and other noise. The use of ultrawideband (UWB) communication systems can be effective in these environments because it affords advantages such as multiple access, lack of significant multipath fading and potentially easier penetrability through various materials. The characterization of the signal propagation mechanism of UWB channels is important from the viewpoint of radio systems design and system performance analysis. In this paper, the results of UWB measurements and simulations in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) industrial multipath environments for three frequency bands are presented.

 

Keyword
characterization, wireless communicaiton, industrial environments
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48298 (URN)978-83-7493-426-8 (ISBN)
Conference
EMC Europe 2010, 13-17 September 2010, Wroclaw, Poland
Note
QC 20111121Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2012-01-19Bibliographically approved
2. Sources of Disturbances on Wireless Communication in Industrial and Factory Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of Disturbances on Wireless Communication in Industrial and Factory Environments
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2010 (English)In: 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 2010, 281-284 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 Electrical and mechanical machinery, highly reflective industrial facilities and co-existing communication systems are the major sources of disturbances in wireless industrial applications. Characterization of industrial environments is important for the development of standards, to assess current and future deployment of wireless technologies, and to provide systems integrators and end user with guidelines. In this paper some deductions from measurements carried out at three industrial environments using traditional electric field strength, amplitude probability distribution (APD) and multipath time dispersion measurements are presented. These measurements have given surprising and interesting results.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48307 (URN)10.1109/APEMC.2010.5475862 (DOI)2-s2.0-77954979400 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5621-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, APEMC 2010. Beijing. 12 April 2010 - 16 April 2010
Note
QC 20111117Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
3. Simulation and Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption in a Finished-product Warehouse
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption in a Finished-product Warehouse
Show others...
2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC 2010), 2010, 881-884 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Several studies have characterized industrial environments as being highly reflective. In this paper, we provide the data obtained from electromagnetic field measurements performed at the warehouse of a paper mill. The data is also compared to simulated data. This data proves the existence of non-reflective and very high absorption industrial environments where wireless communication is impossible at certain frequencies. Furthermore, in such environment, radio performance cannot be improved by multiple antenna solutions such as MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) since multiple reflections are effectively absorbed.

Keyword
Electromagnetic radiation, absorption, wireless industrial communication technology, paper factory
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48300 (URN)10.1109/ISEMC.2010.5711396 (DOI)000294962100161 ()2-s2.0-79952369524 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-6305-3 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Ft Lauderdale, FL, JUL 25-30, 2010
Note
QC 20111121Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
4. Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Characterization in Factory Automation Infrastructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Characterization in Factory Automation Infrastructures
2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 54, no 3, 708-711 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 In recent years, industrial wireless applications have emerged rapidly. The use of short-range radio communication systems in factories increases the flexibility in industrial processes by reducing the use of cables. However, the technological challenges involved in wireless communication in industrial environments are not trivial; they result in disadvantages with respect to reliability and security because of electromagnetic interferences. To gain an understanding of the performance limits of these wireless applications, knowing the characteristics of these environments is essential. In this approach, amplitude probability distribution (APD) and rms delay spread measurements have been used to perform electromagnetic site surveys in three factory automation infrastructures.

 

Keyword
wireless communications, electromagnetic interference, industrial applications, amplitude probability distribution (APD), rms delay spread
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48907 (URN)10.1109/TEMC.2012.2197753 (DOI)000305574300025 ()2-s2.0-84862602743 (Scopus ID)
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20120718

Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Outdoor electromagnetic interference measurements in industrial environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outdoor electromagnetic interference measurements in industrial environments
Show others...
2009 (English)In: AMTA 2009, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 The performance of wireless applications in outdoor industrial environments is degraded by the effect of unknown interferences. Therefore, characterization of these environments has to be done. Measurements have been performed to determine electromagnetic interference in three outdoor industrial environments: steel mill, freight train marshalling yard and paper plant. In this paper it is shown how the measurements of the Amplitude Probability Distribution (APD) can be combined with conventional electric field measurements for such characterization in order to determine the interference impact on digital wireless systems.

Keyword
wireless communications, electromagnetic interference, bit errror probability (BEP), industrial applications, APD
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48301 (URN)
Conference
AMTA 31st Annual Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah, November 1–6, 2009
Note
QC 20111118Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2012-01-19Bibliographically approved
6. Statistical Characterization of the Electromagnetic Environment in a Hospital
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statistical Characterization of the Electromagnetic Environment in a Hospital
2010 (English)In: 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 2010, 289-292 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Thanks to advances in digital technology many hospitals are becoming populated with wireless medical applications to control life critical functions. Electromagnetic interference can cause severe performance degradations on these wireless applications. Several accidents have been reported which calls for a more thorough characterization of these interferences in areas where critical wireless applications are used. In this paper the results of electromagnetic interference measurements performed in a hospital are presented. The amplitude probability distribution (APD) and the inter arrival pulse probability distribution (PSD) are used to characterize these environments. In addition, Middleton parameters can be calculated from the measured data. This study is considered to be a first effort to characterize the 20 MHz -2500 MHz band in hospitals.

Keyword
Critical functions, Digital technologies, Electromagnetic environments, Electromagnetic interference, Electromagnetic interference measurement, Measured data, Performance degradation, Statistical characterization, Wireless application, Electromagnetic compatibility, Electromagnetic pulse, Electromagnetic wave interference, Electromagnetism, Hospitals, Magnetic materials, Medical applications, Probability density function, Signal interference
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48293 (URN)10.1109/APEMC.2010.5475847 (DOI)2-s2.0-77955010393 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5621-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, APEMC 2010; Beijing; 12 April 2010 through 16 April 2010
Note
QC 20111121Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2012-01-19Bibliographically approved
7. Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
2010 (English)In: 2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent work has demonstrated that the underutilized spectrum in the Digital Television Bands, commonly referred to as TV White Space (TVWS), is a prime candidate for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA). However, a systematic assessment of the availability of this spectrum for secondary transmission was, until very recently, lacking. In a TVWS opportunity prediction model to estimate indoor secondary usage probability was proposed. In this paper we aim at verifying this model by means of measurement campaigns in both laboratory and real indoor environments. The match between the predictions from the simulation models in and measurement results suggest that the model provides a realistic evaluation of the opportunities in TVWS for low power indoor secondary usage.

Keyword
white space, digital television broadcasting, opportunistic spectrum access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48305 (URN)10.4108/ICST.CROWNCOM2010.9286 (DOI)2-s2.0-77958168179 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5885-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010. Cannes, France 9 June 2010 - 11 June 2010
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
Wireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20150710

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-10Bibliographically approved
8. A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space
2011 (English)In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2011, 1-5 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The presence of white spaces and spectrum holes in the TV bands represents potential opportunities for alleviating the apparent spectrum scarcity. Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) has been proposed for the secondary user's operation and the main concern is the harmful interference that secondary systems could cause to the primary receivers. Existing studies have focused on establishing the limits for co-channel and adjacent channel interference when only one adjacent channel is used by a single secondary user. This paper presents a characterization of the aggregate adjacent channel interference (AACI) when different adjacent channels are simultaneously accessed by multiple secondary users or white space devices (WSDs). An analytical expression is proposed to approximate the limits of the tolerable AACI. Our model states that not only the interference received in each adjacent channel should stay below the corresponding threshold for that particular channel, but also the weighted sum of the total adjacent channel interference power should be kept below a certain threshold. Measurement campaigns show the cumulative effect of the adjacent channel interference (ACI) when multiple WSDs access multiple adjacent channels at the same time. The proposed analytical expression for AACI closely matches the measurement results.

Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1550-2252
Keyword
white space, opportunistic spectrum access, adjacent channel interference, measurements
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48302 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2011.5956237 (DOI)000295405800122 ()2-s2.0-80051981578 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-8332-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE 73rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC2011-Spring. Budapest, Hungary, 15 May 2011 - 18 May 2011
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20150706

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-06Bibliographically approved

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