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Applications of embedded sensors in loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, two novel applications involving embedded sensors arestudied, one dealing with loader crane positioning and the other involving rotorRevolutions Per Minute (RPM) measurement. The thesis presents a generalintroduction to the embedded sensor, its architecture and its use in mechanicalindustry, and provides the reader with an overview of conventional sensortechnologies within the fields of angle sensors and angular speed sensors, coveringtheir working principles, features, advantages and disadvantages and typicalapplications. The particular problems associated with the use of conventionalsensors in both loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement aredescribed and these problems provided the motivation for the designs of theembedded sensor systems developed in this thesis.In the case of the loader crane positioning, the origins of the project and thespecial requirements of the application are described in detail. In addition, apreliminary study is conducted in relation to the idea of a contactless joint angularsensor using MEMS inertial sensors in which four different methods, namely, theCommon-Mode-Rejection with Gyro Integration (CMRGI), Common-Mode-Rejection (CMR), Common-Mode-Rejection with Gyro Differentiation (CMRGD)and Distributed Common-Mode-Rejection (DCMR), are conceived, modeled andtested on a custom-designed prototype experimental setup. The results gatheredfrom these four methods are compared and analyzed in order to identify thedifferences in their performances. The methods, which proved to be suitable, arethen further tested using the prototype sensor setup on a loader crane and theperformance results are analyzed in order to make a decision in relation to the twomost suitable methods for the application of the loader crane positioning. Theresults suggested that the two most suitable were the CMRGD and the DCMR. Thepractical design issues relating to this sensor system are highlighted andsuggestions are made in the study. Additionally, possible future work for thisproject is also covered.In the first case for the rotor RPM measurement, the thesis presents themodeling and simulation of the stator-free RPM sensor idea using the Monte Carlomethod, which demonstrated the special features and performance of this sensor.The design aspects of the prototype sensor are described in detail and theprototype is tested on an experimental setup. The conclusions for the stator-freeRPM sensor are then made from the analysis of the experimental results and futurework in relation to this sensor is also proposed.In the second case of the rotor RPM measurement, the thesis presentsanother idea involving the laser mouse RPM sensor and the main focus of thestudy is on the performance characterization of the laser mouse sensor and theverification of the RPM sensor idea. Experiments are conducted using the test setup and results are gathered and analyzed and conclusions are drawn.Possibilities in relation to future work for this laser mouse RPM sensor are alsoprovided.The summary and the conclusion form the final chapter of the thesis andseveral important aspects of the designs relating to both the loader cranepositioning project and the rotor RPM measurement project are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2011. , 63 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 114
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15710Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-86694-56-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-15710DiVA: diva2:478555
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-16 Created: 2012-01-16 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Joint-angle Measurement Using Accelerometers and Gyroscopes: A Survey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint-angle Measurement Using Accelerometers and Gyroscopes: A Survey
2010 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, Vol. 59, no 2, 404-414 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an analysis of rigid-body joint-angle measurement based on microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) biaxial accelerometers and uniaxial gyroscopes. In comparison to conventional magnetic and optical joint angular sensors, this new inertial sensing principle has the advantages of flexible installation and true contactless sensing. This paper focuses on the comparison of four different inertial-sensor combination methods that are reported in reference papers and utilizes the theory of rigid-body kinematics to explain and analyze their advantages and weaknesses. Experiments have also been conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the analysis. All experiments in this paper took place on a custom-built rigid-body robot arm model that can be manipulated by hand. Sensor calibration and accelerometer alignment issues are also described, and their details are discussed. The experiment results presented in this paper show significant differences with reference to the achieved angular accuracy for various situations when using the four different sensor combination methods. In some cases, the angular error based on one method is more than 0.04 rad, while that from another method is within +/-0.005 rad. The noise levels of angular readings from different methods are also experimentally compared and analyzed. The conclusion drawn serves to guide readers toward a suitable method for their particular application.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-9493 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2009.2024367 (DOI)000273565700018 ()2-s2.0-76149085497 (Scopus ID)
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2009-07-28 Created: 2009-07-28 Last updated: 2012-01-16Bibliographically approved
2. A Local Positioning System for Loader Cranes Based on Wireless Sensors-A Feasibility Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Local Positioning System for Loader Cranes Based on Wireless Sensors-A Feasibility Study
2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 8, 2881-2893 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a feasibility study that deals with a local positioning system for a loader crane based on battery-powered wireless sensors and consists of two joint angular sensors and one telescopic boom length ranger. The practical challenges associated with using conventional sensors are described in order to provide the motivation behind the choice to use the sensing methods proposed in this paper. A novel method is tested using microelectromechanical system inertial sensors mounted around the crane joints to indirectly measure the joint angles, as well as an ultrasound time-of-flight ranging method to measure the telescopic boom length. The local positioning system's wireless sensor prototype designs are described in detail. Data from the angular sensor experiments conducted on a loader crane and the ultrasound ranging experiments conducted both in the laboratory and on the loader crane are presented and analyzed. The preliminary results from these experiments show that the performance of the new sensors is promising. The conclusion is drawn from the experimental results, and future work for this local positioning system is also described.

Keyword
Acceleration measurement, gyroscopes, hydraulic systems, industrial electronics, mechanical variables measurement, position measurement, sonar distance measurement, sonar transducers
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14691 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2011.2121191 (DOI)000293658600015 ()2-s2.0-79960414914 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2011-11-08 Created: 2011-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Stator-free RPM Sensor Using Accelerometers - A Statistical Performance Simulation by Monte Carlo Method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stator-free RPM Sensor Using Accelerometers - A Statistical Performance Simulation by Monte Carlo Method
2011 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 11, no 12, 3368-3376 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an statistical performance simulation for rigid-body revolutions per minute (RPM) measurement based on two uni-axial accelerometers mounted on rotor. In comparison with other existing sensing methods that are based on two coupled parts, namely stator and rotor and which include conventional electro-magnetic RPM sensors and photo-electric RPM sensors, this new stator-free inertial sensing principle has the advantage of high bandwidth at low RPM, true contact-free sensing and flexible installation. The paper first focuses on the description of the operating principle and the common mode rejection (CMR) method of the stator-free RPM sensor, and then its error model is developed and the error sources are statistically simulated based on Monte Carlo method. The simulation result presents a most interesting property of this sensor, that is, it gives lower precision at lower RPM and higher precision at higher RPM. The conclusion summarizes the modeling analysis result and motivates potential application for this new RPM sensing method.

Keyword
Accelerometers; angular velocity; electromechanical sensors; mechanical variables measurement
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14325 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2011.2159108 (DOI)000301878500024 ()2-s2.0-80455174821 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Projects
Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Design and Implementation of a Stator-Free RPM Sensor Prototype Based on MEMS Accelerometers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Implementation of a Stator-Free RPM Sensor Prototype Based on MEMS Accelerometers
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, no 3, 775-785 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design and implementation of a prototype of a stator-free revolutions-per-minute (RPM) sensor based on two microelectromechanical-system uniaxial accelerometers. This paper first introduces the operating principle of the stator-free RPM sensor. It then discusses the associated architecture and design issues of this new sensing method. It then describes the detail of the prototype sensor hardware and software design of the common-mode rejection method and its signal processing. Experiments using the prototype sensor have been also conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the previous discussion. All experiments in this paper took place on a lathe machine in a laboratory. Sensor calibration under a MATLAB environment is also described. Experimental results confirm the interesting property of this sensor, namely, that it provides higher precision at higher RPM. The conclusion summarizes the design considerations, the experimental results, and the motivation in relation to future works for this stator-free RPM sensing method.

Keyword
Acceleration measurement, industrial electronics, intelligent sensors, microelectromechanical devices, rotating bodies, rotating machine measurements
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15394 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2011.2170755 (DOI)000300248600022 ()2-s2.0-84857048876 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2011-12-19 Created: 2011-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Contactless Rotor RPM Measurement Using Laser Mouse Sensors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contactless Rotor RPM Measurement Using Laser Mouse Sensors
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, no 3, 740-748 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experimental study using laser mouse sensors for the contactless revolutions per minute (RPM) measurement of a rotating shaft. The sensor performance characterization experiment is firstly conducted under different parameter setups. After the optimal parameter value has been found, the rotor RPM experiment is then conducted with a speed sweep from 500 to 3800 rpm, and data are gathered at 30 different speeds and processed using two different methods to convert the sensor readings into the RPM of the rotating shaft; the results are then displayed. The performance differences between the two methods are compared, and the observation is that both the linearity and the signal-to-noise ratio of the frequency correlation method are several times better than those for the amplitude correlation method. The conclusion summarizes the experimental results and the advantage associated with this new RPM sensing method and provides the motivation for its potential applications and its future works.

Keyword
Image motion analysis, image sensors, mechanical variables measurement, optical image processing, rotating machine measurements
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15396 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2011.2169612 (DOI)000300248600018 ()2-s2.0-84857051978 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2011-12-19 Created: 2011-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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