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Structural dynamic and stress wave models for analysis of shotcrete on rock exposed to blasting
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
2012 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 35, no 1, 11-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During blasting in tunnels and mines, the interaction between shotcrete (sprayed concrete) and rock is influenced by propagating stress waves. Shotcrete support in hard rock tunnels is studied here through numerical analysis using three different modelling approaches. The stress response in the shotcrete closest to the rock when exposed to P-waves striking perpendicularly to the shotcrete–rock interface is simulated. The first model tested is a structural dynamic model that consists of masses and spring elements. The second is a model built up with finite element beam elements interconnected with springs. The third is a one-dimensional elastic stress wave model. The models give comparable results, although the definition of the dynamic loads is different. The analysis results can be used to estimate whether the shotcrete will fail or not for a prescribed distance to detonating explosives inside the rock.

Keyword [en]
Blasting, Numerical analysis, Rock, Sprayed concrete, Stress waves
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-58989DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.10.008ISI: 000301217300002ScopusID: 2-s2.0-82355187660OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-58989DiVA: diva2:477046
Note
QC 20120402Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Models for analysis of shotcrete on rock exposed to blasting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Models for analysis of shotcrete on rock exposed to blasting
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In underground construction and tunnelling, the strive for a more time-efficient construction process naturally focuses on the possibilities of reducing the times of waiting between stages of construction. The ability to project shotcrete (sprayed concrete) on a rock surface at an early stage after blasting is vital to the safety during construction and function of e.g. a tunnel. A complication arises when the need for further blasting affects the hardening of newly applied shotcrete. If concrete, cast or sprayed, is exposed to vibrations at an early age while still in the process of hardening, damage that threatens the function of the hard concrete may occur. There is little, or no, established knowledge on the subject and there are no guidelines for practical use.

It is concluded from previous investigations that shotcrete can withstand high particle velocity vibrations without being seriously damaged. Shotcrete without reinforcement can survive vibration levels as high as 0.5−1 m/s while sections with loss of bond and ejected rock will occur for vibration velocities higher than 1 m/s. The performance of young and hardened shotcrete exposed to high magnitudes of vibration is here investigated to identify safe distances and shotcrete ages for underground and tunnelling construction, using numerical analyses and comparison with measurements and observations. The work focuses on finding correlations between numerical results, measurement results and observations obtained during tunnelling. The outcome will be guidelines for practical use.

The project involves development of sophisticated dynamic finite element models for which the collected information and data will be used as input, accomplished by using the finite ele­ment program Abaqus. The models were evaluated and refined through comparisons between calculated and measured data. First, existing simple engineering models were compared and evaluated through calculations and comparisons with existing data. The first model tested is a structural dynamic model that consists of masses and spring elements. The second is a model built up with finite beam elements interconnected with springs. The third is a one-dimensional elastic stress wave model. The stress response in the shotcrete closest to the rock when exposed to P-waves striking perpendicularly to the shotcrete-rock interface was simulated. Results from a non-destructive laboratory experiment were also used to provide test data for the models. The experiment studied P-wave propagation along a concrete bar, with proper­ties similar to rock. Cement based mortar with properties that resembles shotcrete was applied on one end of the bar with a hammer impacting the other. The shape of the stress waves travelling towards the shotcrete was registered using accelerometers positioned along the bar.

Due to the inhomogeneous nature of the rock, the stress waves from the blasting attenuate on the way from the point of explosion towards the shotcrete on the rock surface. Material damping for the rock mass is therefore accounted for, estimated from previous in-situ measurements. The vibration resistance of the shotcrete-rock support system depends on the material properties of the shotcrete and here were age-dependent properties varied to investigate the behaviour of young shotcrete subjected to blast loading. The numerical simulations require insertion of realistic material data for shotcrete and rock, such as density and modulus of elasticity.

The calculated results were in good correspondence with observations and measurements in-situ, and with the previous numerical modelling results. Compared to the engineering models, using a sophisticated finite element program facilitate modelling of more complex geometries and also provide more detailed results. It was demonstrated that wave propagation through rock towards shotcrete can be modelled using two dimensional elastic finite elements in a dynamic analysis. The models must include the properties of the rock and the accuracy of the material parameters used will greatly affect the results. It will be possible to describe the propagation of the waves through the rock mass, from the centre of the explosion to the reflection at the shotcrete-rock interface. It is acceptable to use elastic material formulations until the material strengths are exceeded, i.e. until the strains are outside the elastic range, which thus indicates material failure. The higher complexity of this type of model, compared to the engineering models, will make it possible to model more sophisticated geometries. Examples of preliminary recommendations for practical use are given and it is demonstrated how the developed models and suggested analytical technique can be used to obtain further detailed limit values.

Abstract [sv]

Inom undermarks- och tunnelbyggande leder strävan efter en mer tidseffektiv byggprocess till fokus på möjligheten att reducera väntetiderna mellan byggetapper. Möjligheten att projicera sprutbetong på bergytor i ett tidigt skede efter sprängning är avgörande för säkerheten under konstruktionen av t.ex. en tunnel. En komplikation uppstår när behovet av ytterligare sprängning kan påverka härdningen av nysprutad betong. Om betong, gjuten eller sprutad, utsätts för vibrationer i ett tidigt skede under härdningsprocessen kan skador som hotar funktionen hos den hårdnade betongen uppstå. Kunskapen i ämnet är knapphändig, eller obefintlig, och det finns inga etablerade riktlinjer för praktisk användning.

Slutsatsen från tidigare undersökningar visar att sprutbetong kan tåla höga vibrationer (partikelhastigheter) utan att allvarliga skador uppstår. Oarmerad sprutbetong kan vara oskadd efter att ha utsatts för så höga vibrationsnivåer som 0,5–1 m/s medan partier med förlorad vidhäftning till berget kan uppträda vid vibrationshastigheter högre än 1 m/s. Funktionen hos ung och hårdnande sprutbetong som utsätts för höga vibrationsnivåer undersöks här för att identifiera säkra avstånd och sprutbetongåldrar för undermarks- och tunnelbyggande, med hjälp av numeriska analyser och jämförelser med mätningar och observationer. Arbetet fokuserar på att finna samband mellan numeriska resultat, mätresultat och observationer från tunnelbyggande. Det slutliga resultatet kommer att vara riktlinjer för praktisk användning.

Projektet omfattar utveckling av sofistikerade dynamiska finita elementmodeller för vilka insamlad information och data kommer att användas som indata för det finita elementprogrammet Abaqus. Modellerna utvärderades och förfinats genom jämförelser mellan beräknade och uppmätta resultat. Först jämfördes befintliga enkla mekaniska, ingenjörsmässiga modeller vilka utvärderades genom beräkningar och jämförelser med befintliga data. Den första modellen är en strukturdynamisk modell bestående av massor och fjäderelement. Den andra är en modell uppbyggd av finita balkelementet sammankopplade med fjädrar. Den tredje är en endimensionell elastisk spänningsvågsmodell. Spänningstillståndet i sprutbetongen närmast berget, utsatt för vinkelrätt inkommande P-vågor simulerades. Resultat från icke-förstörande laborationsprovningar användes också som testdata för modellerna. Experimentellt studerades P-vågsutbredning i en betongbalk med egenskaper likvärdiga med berg. Cementbruk med egenskaper liknande sprutbetong applicerades på balkens ena ände medan en hammare användes i den andra. Formen hos den genererade spänningsvågen som propagerade mot sprutbetongänden registrerades med accelerometrar utplacerade längs balken.

På grund av bergets inhomogena karaktär kommer spänningsvågorna från sprängningen att dämpas ut på vägen från detonationspunkten till sprutbetongen på bergytan. Materialdämpningen hos bergmassan måste därför beaktas och kan uppskattas utifrån resultat från fältmätningar. Vibrationståligheten hos förstärkningssystem av sprutbetong och berg beror av materialegenskaperna hos sprutbetongen och i den här studien varierades de åldersberoende egenskaperna för att undersöka beteendet hos nysprutad och hårdnande sprutbetong utsatt för sprängbelastning. De numeriska simuleringarna kräver realistiska materialdata för sprutbetong och berg, som t.ex. densitet och elasticitetsmodul.

De beräknade resultaten var i god överensstämmelse med observationer och mätningar i fält plats, och med de tidigare numeriska resultaten. Jämfört med de mekaniska modellerna kan ett sofistikerat finit elementprogram underlätta modellering av mer komplexa geometrier och också ge mer detaljerade resultat. Det visades att vågutbredning genom berg och fram emot sprutbetong kan beskrivas med tvådimensionella elastiska finita element i en dynamisk analys. Modellerna måste beskriva bergets egenskaper och noggrannheten i dessa parametrar kommer att ha stor inverkan på resultaten. Det kommer att vara möjligt att beskriva vågutbredningen genom bergmassan, från detonationspunkten till reflektionen vid bergytan, det vill säga gränssnittet mellan sprutbetong och berg. Det är acceptabelt att använda elastiska materialformuleringar tills materialet elasticitetsgräns överskrids tills töjningar utanför det elastiska området nås, vilket därmed indikerar materialbrott.

Den högre komplexiteten hos den här typen av modell, jämfört med de mekaniska modellerna, kommer att göra det möjligt att analysera mer komplexa tunnelgeometrier. Exempel på preliminära rekommendationer för praktiskt bruk ges och det visas hur de utvecklade modellerna och den föreslagna analysmetodiken kan användas för att fastställa ytterligare detaljerade gränsvärden.

Publisher, range
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. x, 78 p.
Series
Trita-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 114
Keyword
Shotcrete, Rock, Vibration, Stress waves, Numerical analysis., Sprutbetong, Berg, Vibrationer, Spänningsvågor, Numerisk analys.
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-93716 (URN)
Presentation
2012-05-25, Sal B25, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120427Available from: 2012-04-27 Created: 2012-04-24 Last updated: 2012-04-27Bibliographically approved
2. Models for analysis of young cast and sprayed concrete subjected to impact-type loads
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Models for analysis of young cast and sprayed concrete subjected to impact-type loads
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The strive for a time-efficient construction process naturally put focus on the possibility of reducing the time of waiting between stages of construction, thereby minimizing the construction cost. If recently placed concrete, cast or sprayed, is exposed to impact vibrations at an early age while still in the process of hardening, damage that threatens the function of the hard concrete may occur. A waiting time when the concrete remains undisturbed, or a safe distance to the vibration source, is therefore needed. However, there is little, or no, fully proven knowledge of the length of this distance or time and there are no established guidelines for practical use. Therefore, conservative vibration limits are used for young and hardening concrete exposed to vibrations from e.g. blasting.

As a first step in the dynamic analysis of a structure, the dynamic loads should always be identified and characterized. Here it is concluded that impact-type loads are the most dangerous of possible dynamic loads on young and hardening concrete. Shotcrete (sprayed concrete) on hard rock exposed to blasting and cast laboratory specimens subjected to direct mechanical impact loads have been investigated using finite element models based on the same analysis principles. Stress wave propagation is described in the same way whether it is through hard rock towards a shotcrete lining or through an element of young concrete. However, the failure modes differ for the two cases where shotcrete usually is damaged through loss of bond, partly or over larger sections that may result in shotcrete downfall. Cracking in shotcrete due to vibrations only is unusual and has not been observed during previous in situ tests. The study of shotcrete is included to demonstrate the need of specialized guidelines for cases other than for mass concrete, i.e. structural elements or concrete volumes with large dimensions in all directions.

Within this project, work on evaluating and proposing analytical models are made in several steps, first with a focus on describing the behaviour of shotcrete on hard rock. It is demonstrated that wave propagation through rock towards shotcrete can be described using two-dimensional elastic finite element models in a dynamic analysis. The models must include the material properties of the rock and the accuracy of these parameters will greatly affect the results. It is possible to follow the propagation of stress waves through the rock mass, from the centre of blasting to the reflection at the shotcrete-rock interface. It is acceptable to use elastic material formulations until the strains are outside the elastic range, which thus indicates imminent material failure. The higher complexity of this type of model, compared with mechanical models using mass and spring elements, makes it possible to analyse more sophisticated geometries. Comparisons are made between numerical results and measurements from experiments in mining tunnels with ejected rock mass and shotcrete bond failure, and with measurements made during blasting for tunnel construction where rock and shotcrete remained intact. The calculated results are in good correspondence with the in situ observations and measurements, and with previous numerical modelling results. Examples of preliminary recommendations for practical use are given and it is demonstrated how the developed models and suggested analytical technique can be used for further detailed investigations.

The modelling concept has also been used for analysis of impact loaded beams and concrete prisms modelled with 3D solid elements. As a first analysis step, an elastic material model was used to validate laboratory experiments with hammer-loaded concrete beams. The laboratory beam remained un-cracked during the experiments, and thus it was possible to achieve a good agreement using a linear elastic material model for fully hardened concrete. The model was further developed to enable modelling of cracked specimens. For verification of the numerical results, earlier laboratory experiments with hammer impacted smaller prisms of young concrete were chosen. A comparison between results showed that the laboratory tests can be reproduced numerically and those free vibration modes and natural frequencies of the test prisms contributed to the strain concentrations that gave cracking at high loads. Furthermore, it was investigated how a test prism modified with notches at the middle section would behave during laboratory testing. Calculated results showed that all cracking would be concentrated to one crack with a width equal to the sum of the multiple cracks that develop in un-notched prisms. In laboratory testing, the modified prism will provide a more reliable indication of when the critical load level is reached.

This project has been interdisciplinary, combining structural dynamics, finite element modelling, concrete material technology, construction technology and rock support technology. It is a continuation from previous investigations of the effect on young shotcrete from blasting vibrations but this perspective has been widened to also include young, cast concrete. The outcome is a recommendation for how dynamic analysis of young concrete, cast and sprayed, can be carried out with an accurate description of the effect from impact-type loads. The type of numerical models presented and evaluated will provide an important tool for the work towards guidelines for practical use in civil engineering and concrete construction work. Some recommendations on safe distances and concrete ages are given, for newly cast concrete elements or mass concrete and for newly sprayed shotcrete on hard rock.

Publisher, range
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. x, 68 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 132
Keyword
Young concrete · Shotcrete · Rock · Impact-type vibration · Finite element method · Fracture mechanics model · Crack width
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168211 (URN)
Public defence
2015-06-09, D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
<p>QC 20150529</p>Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-28 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved

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