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Convergence in mixed reality-virtuality environments: facilitating natural user behavior
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the subject of converging real and virtual environments to a combined entity that can facilitate physiologically complying interfaces for the purpose of training. Based on the mobility and physiological demands of dismounted soldiers, the base assumption is that greater immersion means better learning and potentially higher training transfer. As the user can interface with the system in a natural way, more focus and energy can be used for training rather than for control itself. Identified requirements on a simulator relating to physical and psychological user aspects are support for unobtrusive and wireless use, high field of view, high performance tracking, use of authentic tools, ability to see other trainees, unrestricted movement and physical feedback. Using only commercially available systems would be prohibitively expensive whilst not providing a solution that would be fully optimized for the target group for this simulator. For this reason, most of the systems that compose the simulator are custom made to facilitate physiological human aspects as well as to bring down costs. With the use of chroma keying, a cylindrical simulator room and parallax corrected high field of view video see-though head mounted displays, the real and virtual reality are mixed. This facilitates use of real tool as well as layering and manipulation of real and virtual objects. Furthermore, a novel omnidirectional floor and thereto interface scheme is developed to allow limitless physical walking to be used for virtual translation. A physically confined real space is thereby transformed into an infinite converged environment. The omnidirectional floor regulation algorithm can also provide physical feedback through adjustment of the velocity in order to synchronize virtual obstacles with the surrounding simulator walls. As an alternative simulator target use, an omnidirectional robotic platform has been developed that can match the user movements. This can be utilized to increase situation awareness in telepresence applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2012. , 71 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 53
Keyword [en]
Mixed reality. augmented reality, augmented virtuality, head mounted display, omnidirectional floor, natural interface, telepresence
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21054ISBN: 978-91-7668-852-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-21054DiVA: diva2:476971
Public defence
2012-02-10, Hörsal L1, Långhuset, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 11:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2012-01-12 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Design and development of an augmented environment with high user mobility for training purposes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and development of an augmented environment with high user mobility for training purposes
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th Mechatronics Forum Biennial International Conference: 23 – 25 June2008, Universith of Limerick, Ireland / [ed] Toal D., Limerick: University of Limerick , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The paper describes the design and development of a novel cost effective simulator for training of situation awareness, strategy and co-operation. By mixing real and virtual realities in combination with wireless and body-mounted hardware, the result is an augmented environment that allows for high physical mobility against a relatively low cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Limerick: University of Limerick, 2008
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21061 (URN)1-905952-05-8 (ISBN)978-1-905952-05-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Mechatronics 2008, June 23 – 25, University of Limerick, Ireland
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-13 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
2. A low cost video see-through head mounted display for increased situation awareness in an augmented environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A low cost video see-through head mounted display for increased situation awareness in an augmented environment
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A head mounted display is developed for use in an augmented reality immersive simulator for virtual training. The simulator requires a video see-through parallax-free display to accurately mix the real and virtual worlds. High field of view is also required to allow use of peripheral vision in order to create a higher sense of awareness for the user. Due to high cost associated with commercial off-the-shelf display systems, a custom solution is designed and developed by combining hardware and software. It’s shown that it’s possible to build a low cost display system that provides the necessary attributes and acceptable compromises for the current type of application.

Keyword
Head mounted display, Video see-through, Parallax free, Anaglyphic, Augmented
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21062 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-13 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
3. An augmented virtuality simulator with an intuitive interface: concept, design and implementation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An augmented virtuality simulator with an intuitive interface: concept, design and implementation
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the design and implementation of a simulator in which users can move untethered in a mixed reality where the boundary between real and virtual objects is minimal. A wide field of view, inexpensive, custom-built video see-through head-mounted display is used in combination with wireless image transfers, natural position displacement and software chroma keying. The result is a simulator that facilitates a high grade of presence with a user interface that allows a high degree of mobility.

Keyword
Augmented Virtuality, Chroma Keying, Lens Distortion Reduction, Eye-Tracking, Wireless
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21063 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-13 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
4. Omnidirectional robotic telepresence through augmented virtuality for increased situation awareness in hazardous environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Omnidirectional robotic telepresence through augmented virtuality for increased situation awareness in hazardous environments
2009 (English)In: Proceedings 2009 IEEE International Conference on  Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, 6-11 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a novel low-cost robotic telepresence approach to situation awareness, initially aimed for hazardous environments. The robot supports omnidirectional movement, wide field of vision, haptic feedback and binaural sound. It is controlled through an augmented virtuality environment with an intuitive position displacement scheme that supports physical mobility. The operator thereby can conduct work away from danger whilst retaining situation awareness of the real environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2009
Keyword
telepresence, augmented virtuality, omnidirectional movement, haptic feedback, binaural
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21064 (URN)10.1109/ICSMC.2009.5346397 (DOI)978-1-4244-2793-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 11-14 Oct, 2009. SMC 2009, San Antonio, TX
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
5. Towards convergence in a virtual environment: omnidirectional movement, physical feedback, social interaction and vision
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards convergence in a virtual environment: omnidirectional movement, physical feedback, social interaction and vision
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Movement, physical feedback, social interaction and vision are important factors for humans in the real world, and therefore also in a virtual world whose aim is to mimic the real world. The effect of a virtual environment application could increase through the use of a human-computer interface that can match natural human capability in such areas, and several novel components are presented herein. Here, movement and feedback is gained through an omnidirectional walking surface that enables untethered movement throughout a virtual world without imposing physical restrictions. Although several different approaches exist to the mechanical problem of two-dimensional translation, an alternative top-down approach can reduce complexity to one-dimensional space. Furthermore, interchange of subtle body language can be vital and achieved with a system that supports high fidelity in virtual texture representation of users, which can be more powerful in some cases than virtual geometry. Also, a new approach is taken to the design of a head mounted display with minimal weight through optics in the form of soft contact lenses, mounted directly on the eyes.

National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21067 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-13 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
6. Design and evaluation of an omnidirectional active floor for synthetic environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and evaluation of an omnidirectional active floor for synthetic environments
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the case of an application with a freely moving user it could be feasible that a simulator that facilitates real running, walking, and crawling can achieve a higher feeling of presence and situation awareness, and therefore potential training effect, compared to a simulator without such facilities. Omnidirectional walking is a research topic that has yielded a number of diverse solutions, but most are still within their prototype stages. Solutions can be expensive, mechanically complicated and in some cases unpractical. The complexity of existing solutions stems in the fact that they are two dimensional, given the normal two dimensional translation of human walking. If instead the problem is viewed upon from an angle of effect, another alternative is available. A two dimensional floor has the purpose to constantly allow translation in any direction, while it also transports the user towards its central region. This is to always have a marginal in all directions for changes in user translation direction or velocity. The effect of this is that a floor could be constructed to always facilitate transportation of the user towards its center, regardless of where on the floor’s surface the user is situated. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a powered omnidirectional floor that reduces the complexity of omnidirectional walking from two dimensions to one dimension. The floor is utilized to create a synthetic environment for training.

National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21068 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-13 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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