First-pass Intestinal Metabolism of Drugs: Experiences from in vitro, in vivo and simulation studies
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The bioavailability of a drug can be described as the fraction of an orally administered dose that reaches the systemic circulation and is often limited by first-pass metabolism in the gut and the liver. It is important to have knowledge about these processes since the systemic blood drug concentration is tightly connected to the effect of the drug.
The general aim of this project was to quantitatively examine the role of the intestine in relation to the liver in first-pass metabolism of orally administered drugs. The first-pass metabolism of verapamil and raloxifene was investigated in detail with in vivo, in vitro and simulation studies, using the pig as an experimental model.
The intestine contributed to the same extent as the liver to first-pass metabolism of R/S-verapamil in vivo in pigs. The S-isomer of verapamil was found in lower plasma concentrations compared to the R-isomer after oral dosing. The in vitro metabolism of verapamil in pig and human liver showed interspecies similarity and indicated equal intrinsic clearance for R- and S-verapamil. Through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling the stereoselectivity was explained by a combination of several processes, including enantioselective plasma protein binding, blood-to-plasma partition, and gut and liver tissue distribution. For raloxifene the intestine was the dominating organ in first-pass glucuronidation in vivo in pigs. Furthermore, the raloxifene concentration entering the intestine or the dose administered in the gut did not influence the plasma PK of raloxifene and indicated that the intestinal metabolism was not saturable with clinical relevant doses. For both verapamil and raloxifene, a time-dependent hepatic metabolism was noted with major consequences to the pharmacokinetic of the drugs.
This project has pointed out the importance of intestinal metabolism in the overall first-pass extraction of drugs and indicates that intestinal metabolism should be considered and evaluated early in drug development.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2012. , 66 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 153
pharmacokinetics, metabolism, CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, UGT, glucuronidation, physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, modelling
Research subject Biopharmaceutics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-165514ISBN: 978-91-554-8251-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-165514DiVA: diva2:474024
2012-02-24, B42, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Houston, Brian, professor
Lennernäs, Hans, professorDickinson, Paul Alfred, PhD
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