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Wood Waste Derived Fuel: State of the Ard and Development Prospects in France: Focus on Construction and Demolition Wood Wastes
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
2010 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Wood wastes are mainly originated from forestry, wood industry and construction and demolition sites activities. Among them, three types of wood waste can be identified: untreated wood waste (raw wood considered as biomass), slightly treated wood wastes (issued from coating or gluing treatments) and highly treated wood wastes (issued from impregnation treatments with CCA and creosote, and considered as hazardous wastes).

 According to the regulation, management of wastes in Europe is oriented towards more recycling and less elimination. However, among the French requirements, three main trends can be observed in regards of wood waste recovery: only treated wood wastes can be recovered in combustion units, no extensive technologies are allowed to recover highly treated wood wastes, which must then be eliminated by incineration, and slightly treated wood wastes can be either recovered as particle boards or eliminated.

 However, in this context, the amount of wood wastes from construction and demolition sites reach 7 million of tons in France. Among them, 5% correspond to raw wood, and 25% are slightly treated. The high combustion potential of wood wastes is moreover an opportunity to replace conventional fuel used in combustion units.

 The four main methods used to treat wood wastes are recycling as particleboards, combustion, incineration and land filling. Due to the various typologies of wood wastes, a conditioning step is needed before recovery. Then, if combustion seems to present advantages because of its neutral carbon impact, life cycle analysis demonstrates that emissions of other pollutants are observed. In addition, it is proved that controlled elimination methods are less impacting than unequipped recovery ones. Recycling is then not always the best practice in regards of the impacts considered in the study.

 Competition among the different methods treatment and low prices of wood wastes are specific economical aspects that could influence the development of the field. Moreover, the increasing acceptance of people for recovery and local waste treatment methods, as well as the need for energetically independency are factors that can likely promote wood waste derived fuel. These driving forces are evolving in a very rapid way. Regulation is moving towards implementation of standards to promote the development of slightly treated wood waste derived fuel. Technological and social improvement such as sorting at source, and the development of end of pipe treatment methods are also likely to have positive effects.

 An integrated solution to develop wood waste derived fuel would be to implement strong financial incentives in favour of clean technologies for wood wastes recovery methods. This enhancement could then be the mean to answer the double challenge of wood waste treatment and fossil fuel replacement.

 Wood wastes are mainly originated from forestry, wood industry and construction and demolition sites activities. Among them, three types of wood waste can be identified: untreated wood waste (raw wood considered as biomass), slightly treated wood wastes (issued from coating or gluing treatments) and highly treated wood wastes (issued from impregnation treatments with CCA and creosote, and considered as hazardous wastes).

 According to the regulation, management of wastes in Europe is oriented towards more recycling and less elimination. However, among the French requirements, three main trends can be observed in regards of wood waste recovery: only treated wood wastes can be recovered in combustion units, no extensive technologies are allowed to recover highly treated wood wastes, which must then be eliminated by incineration, and slightly treated wood wastes can be either recovered as particle boards or eliminated.

 However, in this context, the amount of wood wastes from construction and demolition sites reach 7 million of tons in France. Among them, 5% correspond to raw wood, and 25% are slightly treated. The high combustion potential of wood wastes is moreover an opportunity to replace conventional fuel used in combustion units.

 The four main methods used to treat wood wastes are recycling as particleboards, combustion, incineration and land filling. Due to the various typologies of wood wastes, a conditioning step is needed before recovery. Then, if combustion seems to present advantages because of its neutral carbon impact, life cycle analysis demonstrates that emissions of other pollutants are observed. In addition, it is proved that controlled elimination methods are less impacting than unequipped recovery ones. Recycling is then not always the best practice in regards of the impacts considered in the study.

 Competition among the different methods treatment and low prices of wood wastes are specific economical aspects that could influence the development of the field. Moreover, the increasing acceptance of people for recovery and local waste treatment methods, as well as the need for energetically independency are factors that can likely promote wood waste derived fuel. These driving forces are evolving in a very rapid way. Regulation is moving towards implementation of standards to promote the development of slightly treated wood waste derived fuel. Technological and social improvement such as sorting at source, and the development of end of pipe treatment methods are also likely to have positive effects.

 An integrated solution to develop wood waste derived fuel would be to implement strong financial incentives in favour of clean technologies for wood wastes recovery methods. This enhancement could then be the mean to answer the double challenge of wood waste treatment and fossil fuel replacement.

Abstract [sv]

Träavfall kommer från skogsbruk, trä‐ och byggbranschen och rivningsplatser. Bland dem kan tre typer av träavfall identifieras: obehandlat träavfall (obehandlat trä betraktas som biomassa), lätt behandlat träavfall (från beläggning eller limning) och högbehandlat träavfall (från impregnering med CCA och kreosot, betraktas som farligt avfall).

Enligt avfallsförordningen, är hantering av avfall i Europa inriktad mer mot återvinning och mindre mot eliminering. Bland de franska kraven, kan tre huvudsakliga tendenser iakttas för återvinning av träavfall: endast behandlat avfall kan behandlas i förbränningsanläggningar för energiutvinning, högbehandlat träavfall måste elimineras genom förbränning och lätt behandlat avfall kan antingen återvinnas som spånskivor eller elimineras.

I detta sammanhang uppgår mängden träavfall från bygg‐ och rivningsplatser till 7 miljoner ton i Frankrike. Bland dem, motsvarar 5% obehandlat trä, och 25% är lätt behandlat. Den höga förbränningspotentialen för träavfall ger dessutom en möjlighet att ersätta konventionellt bränsle som används i förbränningsanläggningar.

De fyra huvudsakliga metoder som används för att behandla träavfall är återvinning i spånskivor, förbränning med energiutvinning, förbränning och deponering. På grund av olika typer av träavfall, krävs ett konditioneringsteg innan återvinning. Även om förbränningen är fördelaktigt på grund av sitt neutrala kol, visar livscykelanalyser utsläpp av andra föroreningar. Dessutom visas att kontrollerade elimineringsmetoder har mindre miljöpåverkar än återvinningsmetoder som ej har rätt utrustning. Återvinning är alltså inte alltid att föredra om man beaktar de effekter som gjorts vid denna undersökningen.

Konkurrensen mellan olika behandlingsmetoder och låga priser på träavfall är specifika ekonomiska aspekter som skulle kunna påverka utvecklingen inom området. Dessutom, den ökande acceptansen av människor för återvinning och lokala avfallshanteringsmetoder, liksom behovet av inhemska energikällor är faktorer som sannolikt kan främja bränsle från träavfall.

Dessa drivkrafter utvecklas på ett mycket snabbt sätt. Avfallsförordningen är på väg mot införandet av standarder för att främja utvecklingen av lätt behandlat träavfalls bränsle. Tekniska och sociala förbättringar, exempelvis källsortering och utveckling av återvinningsmetoder ger också sannolikt positiva effekter.

En integrerad lösning för att utveckla bränsle från träavfall skulle vara att genomföra starka ekonomiska incitament till förmån för ren teknik för återvinning av träavfall. Den här förbättringen kan sedan vara ett medel att anta den dubbla utmaningen av hantering av träavfall och ersättning av fossila bränslen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010.
Series
Trita-IM, ISSN 1402-7615 ; 2010:34
Keyword [en]
Waste management, Construction and demolition wastes, wood wastes, biomass, combustion, life cycle assessment
Keyword [sv]
Avfallshantering, Bygg‐och rivningsavfall, träavfall, biomassa, förbränning, livscykelanalys
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-55330OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-55330DiVA: diva2:471435
Uppsok
Technology
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Examiners
Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2012-01-13Bibliographically approved

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