Air-pocket transport in conjunction with bottom-outlet conduits for dams
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Undesired air entrainment in bottom outlet conduits of dams may cause pressure transients, leading to conduit vibrations, blowback, discharge pulsation and even cavitation, and jeopardize the operational safety. Due to design limitations or construction costs, it is impossible to create an air free environment in a pressurized pipe. Therefore, it is essential to understand the air transport in enclosed pipes in order to provide guidance in bottom outlet design and operation. The commonly used criterion of the air-pocket movement in pipe flow is the water flow velocity for starting moving an air pocket, the so-called critical velocity.
In this thesis, the classical Volume of Fluid (VOF) model combined with the k-ε turbulence model is adopted for the computation of the critical velocity of a 150-mm pipe. The computed critical velocities are compared with the experimental results. The governing parameters investigated in this study include pipe slope and diameter, wall shear stress and air-pocket volume. Meanwhile, the carrying capacity (air-pocket velocity/ flow velocity) at all pipe slopes are analyzed. The simulation results of air pockets with different volumes in the bottom outlet conduit of Letten Dam in Sweden are presented in this study.
Moreover, experimental study was conducted to measure the critical velocity for a 240-mm Plexiglas pipe. The results are in agreement with the experiments performed by HR Wallingford (HRW) in 2003 in terms of the effects of pipe slope and air-pocket volume; however, the critical Froude pipe number is slightly smaller in this study. In rough pipes, a larger critical velocity is required compared with that in the smooth pipe. The removal mechanism in the rough pipe involves the successive loss of air caused by turbulence. This explains that the air-pocket size, with the dimensionless air-pocket volume n < 0.015, has little impact on the critical velocity for the rough pipe. In addition, roughness has little impact on the air-pocket velocity when it moves upstream in the downward inclined pipe. The trapped air bubbles most likely remain permanently in the rough pipe.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. , x, 25 p.
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2062
Air-water two-phase flow, critical velocity, diameter effect, roughness, VOF model, bottom outlet, experiment
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Geotechnical Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-52727ISRN: KTH/LWR/LIC 2062-SEISBN: 978-91-7501-213-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-52727DiVA: diva2:467590
2012-01-19, V3, Teknikringen 72, KTH, Stockholm, 10:30 (English)
Lundström, Staffan, Professor
Wörman, Anders, ProfessorYang, James, Adj. professor
QC 201201102012-01-102011-12-192012-01-10Bibliographically approved
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