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Filaggrin genotype determines functional and molecular alterations in skin of patients with atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis vulgaris
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
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2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 12, e28254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Several common genetic and environmental disease mechanisms are important for the pathophysiology behind atopic dermatitis (AD). Filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function is of great significance for barrier impairment in AD and ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), which is commonly associated with AD. The molecular background is, however, complex and various clusters of genes are altered, including inflammatory and epidermal-differentiation genes.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to study whether the functional and molecular alterations in AD and IV skin depend directly on FLG loss-of-function, and whether FLG genotype determines the type of downstream molecular pathway affected.

METHODS AND FINDINGS:

Patients with AD/IV (n = 43) and controls (n = 15) were recruited from two Swedish outpatient clinics and a Swedish AD family material with known FLG genotype. They were clinically examined and their medical history recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples and punch biopsies were taken and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin pH was assessed with standard techniques. In addition to FLG genotyping, the STS gene was analyzed to exclude X-linked recessive ichthyosis (XLI). Microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR were used to compare differences in gene expression depending on FLG genotype. Several different signalling pathways were altered depending on FLG genotype in patients suffering from AD or AD/IV. Disease severity, TEWL and pH follow FLG deficiency in the skin; and the number of altered genes and pathways are correlated to FLG mRNA expression.

CONCLUSIONS:

We emphasize further the role of FLG in skin-barrier integrity and the complex compensatory activation of signalling pathways. This involves inflammation, epidermal differentiation, lipid metabolism, cell signalling and adhesion in response to FLG-dependent skin-barrier dysfunction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 6, no 12, e28254
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-164269DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028254ISI: 000298171400054PubMedID: 22164253OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-164269DiVA: diva2:467097
Available from: 2011-12-19 Created: 2011-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Skin Barrier Function and mRNA Expression Profiles in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis, Ichthyosis Vulgaris, and X-linked Recessive Ichthyosis: Aetiopathogenic Differences and the Impact of Moisturizing Treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skin Barrier Function and mRNA Expression Profiles in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis, Ichthyosis Vulgaris, and X-linked Recessive Ichthyosis: Aetiopathogenic Differences and the Impact of Moisturizing Treatment
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Atopic dermatitis (AD), ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), and X-linked recessive ichthyosis (XLRI) are characterized by dry skin and impaired skin barrier. AD and IV are related to loss-of-function mutations in FLG (encoding filaggrin), whereas XLRI is caused by deletions or inactivating mutations in the steroid sulphatase gene (STS). Patients regularly use moisturizing creams, but little is known about the creams’ effects on the skin barrier.

The present work combines objective scorings, non-invasive techniques, and molecular analyses of skin biopsies to characterize the skin in 57 patients with AD, IV, or XLRI, and in 14 healthy controls. Patients were classified according to their FLG and STS mutation status: AD with FLG+/+ (n = 14), AD with FLG+/– (n = 14), AD/IV with FLG–/– (n = 15), and XLRI with STS– (n = 14), as well as one man with a novel point mutation. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after four weeks of treatment with three different moisturizers applied to volar forearm skin.

At baseline, dryness scoring and non-invasive assessments verified impaired skin barrier function in all patients. In patients with AD/IV, microarray analysis identified 300–3000 up- or downregulated mRNA transcripts involved in signalling pathways important for inflammation and barrier repair. The skin phenotype and number of altered transcripts were correlated with the FLG mutation status, with FLG–/– patients displaying the highest transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the most altered transcript levels. In contrast, despite an equally dysfunctional skin barrier, only limited changes in mRNA transcripts occurred in XLRI patients. Treatment with moisturizers improved skin dryness similarly in all groups, but TEWL behaved differently: it decreased slightly in the AD/IV group and increased in the XLRI group, especially after urea treatment. Only minute effects on skin pH and mRNA expression were observed.

In conclusion, FLG mutations elicit pro-inflammatory mechanisms probably aimed at restoring barrier competence. This does not occur in patients with XLRI, presumably because STS deficiency automatically increases the barrier thickness. Moisturizing treatment improves skin dryness in patients with AD, IV, or XLRI, but does not seem to normalize the altered epidermal gene expression profile in AD/IV patients.

 

 

 

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 49 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 859
Keyword
atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis vulgaris, X-linked recessive ichthyosis, skin barrier function, moisturizers, transepidermal water loss, gene expression
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Research subject
Dermatology and Venerology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-192396 (URN)978-91-554-8583-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-03-08, Rosénsalen, Ingång 95/96, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2013-02-15 Created: 2013-01-20 Last updated: 2013-04-02

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Hoppe, TorborgBerne, BeritVahlquist, AndersTörmä, Hans

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