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Towards a Predictable Component-Based Run-Time System
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. (Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Systems (MBEES))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7448-3381
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis we propose a technique to preserve the temporal properties of realtime components during their integration and reuse. We propose a new concept of runnable virtual node which is a coarse-grained real-time component that provides functional and temporal isolation with respect to its environment. A virtual node’s interaction with the environment is bounded by both a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of its internal temporal behaviour is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment.

 

The first major contribution of this thesis is the implementation of a Hierarchical Scheduling Framework (HSF) on an open source real-time operating system (FreeRTOS) with the emphasis of doing minimal changes to the underlying FreeRTOS kernel and keeping its API intact to support the temporal isolation between a numbers of applications, on a single processor. Temporal isolation between the components during runtime prevents failure propagation between different components.

 

The second contribution of the thesis is with respect to the integration of components, where we first illustrate how the concept of the runnable virtual node can be integrated in several component technologies and, secondly, we perform a proof-of-concept case study for the ProCom component technology where we demonstrate the runnable virtual node’s real-time properties for temporal isolations and reusability.

 

We have performed experimental evaluations on EVK1100 AVR based 32-bit micro-controller and have checked the system behaviour during heavy-load and over-load situations by visualizing execution traces in both hierarchical scheduling and virtual node contexts. The results for the case study demonstrate temporal error containment within a runnable virtual node as well as reuse of the node in a new environment without altering its temporal behaviour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2012.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 145
Keyword [en]
real-time systems, component based software engineering, hierarchical scheduling
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13488ISBN: 978-91-7485-054-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-13488DiVA: diva2:465072
Presentation
2012-01-09, Kappa, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
PROGRESS
Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-14 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Virtual Node - To Achieve Temporal Isolation and Predictable Integration of Real-Time Components
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual Node - To Achieve Temporal Isolation and Predictable Integration of Real-Time Components
2012 (English)In: International Journal on Computing (JoC), ISSN 2010-2283, Vol. 1, no 4, 63-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present an approach of two-level deployment process for component models used in distributed real-time embedded systems to achieve predictable integration of real-time components. Our main emphasis is on the new concept of virtual node with the use of a hierarchical scheduling technique. Virtual nodes are used as means to achieve predictable integration of software components with real-time requirements. The hierarchical scheduling framework is used to achieve temporal isolation between components (or sets of components). Our approach permits detailed analysis, e.g., with respect to timing, of virtual nodes and this analysis is also reusable with the reuse of virtual nodes. Hence virtual node preserves real-time properties across reuse and integration in different contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Global Science and Technology Forum (GSTF), 2012
Keyword
Hierarchical scheduling, real-time systems, reusability, component-based software-engineering
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13426 (URN)
Available from: 2012-05-16 Created: 2011-12-09 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
2. Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS
Show others...
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE 16TH CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA) / [ed] IEEE Industrial Electronic Society, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 1-10 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the implementation of a HierarchicalScheduling Framework (HSF) on an open sourcereal-time operating system (FreeRTOS) to support the temporalisolation between a number of applications, on a single processor.The goal is to achieve predictable integration and reusability ofindependently developed components or applications. We presentthe initial results of the HSF implementation by running it onan AVR 32-bit board EVK1100.

The paper addresses the fixed-priority preemptive schedulingat both global and local scheduling levels. It describes the detaileddesign of HSF with the emphasis of doing minimal changes tothe underlying FreeRTOS kernel and keeping its API intact.Finally it provides (and compares) the results for the performancemeasures of idling and deferrable servers with respect to theoverhead of the implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
Real-time systems; hierarchical scheduling framework; fixed-priority scheduling
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13421 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2011.6059016 (DOI)2-s2.0-80655128588 (Scopus ID)978-1-4577-0018-7 (ISBN)
Conference
16th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA) Location: Toulouse, FRANCE Date: SEP 05-09, 2011
Note

Submitted to 16th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory automation (ETFA'11) ©2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE."

Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-09 Last updated: 2017-09-27Bibliographically approved
3. Hard Real-time Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hard Real-time Support for Hierarchical Scheduling in FreeRTOS
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of 7th annual workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications July 5th, 2011 in Porto, Portugal: in conjunction with the23rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time SystemsPortugal, July 6-8, 201 / [ed] Thomas Gleixner, Gabriel Permer, 2011, 51-60 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents extensions to the previous implementationof two-level Hierarchical Scheduling Framework(HSF) for FreeRTOS. The results presented here allow the useof HSF for FreeRTOS in hard-real time applications, with thepossibility to include legacy applications and components notexplicitly developed for hard real-time or the HSF.

Specifically, we present the implementations of (i) global andlocal resource sharing using the Hierarchical Stack ResourcePolicy and Stack Resource Policy respectively, (ii) kernel supportfor the periodic task model, and (iii) mapping of original FreeRTOSAPI to the extended FreeRTOS HSF API. We also presentevaluations of overheads and behavior for different alternativeimplementations of HSRP with overrun from experiments on theAVR 32-bit board EVK1100. In addition, real-time schedulinganalysis with models of the overheads of our implementation ispresented.

Keyword
Real-time systems; hierarchical scheduling framework; resource sharing, fixed-priority scheduling
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13425 (URN)
Conference
23rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems
Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-09 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
4. Run-Time Component Integration and Reuse in Cyber-Physical Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Run-Time Component Integration and Reuse in Cyber-Physical Systems
2011 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We present the concept of runnable virtual nodes as a means to achieve predictable integration and reuse of software components in cyber-physical systems. A runnable virtual nodeis a coarse-grained real-time component that provides functional and temporal isolation with respect to its environment.Its interaction with the environment is bounded both by a functional and a temporal interface, and the validity of itsinternal temporal behavior is preserved when integrated with other components or when reused in a new environment.Our realization of runnable virtual nodes exploits the latest techniques for hierarchical scheduling to achieve temporalisolation, and the principles from component-based software-engineering to achieve functional isolation. In the paperwe present a proof-of-concept case study, implemented in the ProCom component-technology executing on top of FreeRTOSbased hierarchical scheduling framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2011. 21 p.
Series
MRTC report, ISSN 1404-3041
Keyword
real-time components; hierarchical scheduling framework; deployment, reusability
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13432 (URN)MDH-MRTC-256/2011-1-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-12 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved

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