Design and Synthesis of Acyclic and Macrocyclic Peptidomimetics as Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Hepatitis C is a blood-borne disease affecting 130-170 million people worldwide. The causative agent, hepatitis C virus (HCV), infects the liver and is the major reason for chronic liver disease worldwide. The HCV NS3 protease, a key enzyme in the virus replication cycle, has been confirmed to be an important target for drug development. With the recent release of two HCV NS3 protease inhibitors onto the market and an arsenal of inhibitors in clinical trials, there are now hopes of finally combating the disease. However, the success of treatment relies heavily on the ability to overcome the emergence of drug-resistant forms of the protease.
The main focus of this thesis was on designing and synthesizing novel inhibitors of the NS3 protease with a unique resistance profile. Efforts were also made to decrease the peptide character of the compounds, with the long-term goal of making them into more drug-like compounds. Special attention was devoted to developing inhibitors based on a phenylglycine in the P2 position, instead of the highly optimized and commonly used P2 proline. Around ninety acyclic and macrocyclic inhibitors have been synthesized and biochemically evaluated. P2 pyrimidinyloxy phenylglycine was successfully combined with an aromatic P1 moiety and alkenylic P1´ elongations, yielding a distinct class of HCV NS3 protease inhibitors. Macrocyclization was performed in several directions of the inhibitors via ring-closing metathesis. Only the macrocyclization between the P3-P1´ residues was successful in terms of inhibitory potency, which suggests that the elongated P1-P1´ residue is oriented towards the P3 side chain. The metathesis reaction was found to be significantly more dependent on the substrate than on the reaction conditions. It was also found that the P3 truncated inhibitors were able to retain good inhibitory potency, which initiated the synthesis and evaluation of a series of P2-P1´ inhibitors. The potential of the P3-P1´cyclized inhibitor and the smaller, acyclic P2-P1´ as new potential drug leads remains to be determined through pharmacokinetic profiling. Gratifyingly, all the inhibitors evaluated on A156T and D168V substituted enzyme variants were able to retain inhibitory potency towards these as compared to wild-type inhibition.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2012. , 98 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 152
hepatitis C virus, HCV, NS3 protease inhibitor, structure-activity relationship, phenylglycine, ring-closing metathesis
Research subject Medicinal Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-163361ISBN: 978-91-554-8243-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-163361DiVA: diva2:464055
2012-02-03, B41, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Tsantrizos, Youla, Prof.
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