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On tool steel, surface preparation, contact geometry and wear in sheet metal forming
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1225-0598
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In sheet metal forming operations the life length of the production equipment islargely dependent on the wear of the tools that are in direct contact with the sheet.One form of adhesive wear where some sheet material gets transferred to the tool, alsoknown as galling, is the most common cause of tool failure. The transferred materialsticks firmly to the tool and will scratch subsequent sheets and increase friction, renderingthem anywhere from aesthetically unsightly to completely ripped apart. Withcareful combination of several parameters the tools production life can be significantlyextended. The surface preparation of the tools has a large influence on the tool life, thesurface has to be smooth and yet not without texture. It was shown in strip reductiontesting that the orientation as well as the depth of the surface texture left by polishinginfluenced the tool life and that a texture perpendicular to the sliding direction was toprefer. The geometry of the forming tool is also a parameter to take into account as itinfluences the tool life not only by changing the contact pressure but also in itself. Ina sliding against flat sheet test rig a lower contact pressure increased the sliding distanceto galling. When two different geometries were compared at the same contactpressure it was found that there was a difference in tool life. As to the tool itself thematerial it’s made of influences the wear rate and tool life. Different tool steels wasinvestigated in sliding wear against metal sheets; Vancron 40 performed better thanVanadis 6 and S290PM performed better than a AISI M2 grade steel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2011. , 47 p.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2011:64
Keyword [en]
Wear, Galling, sheet metal, deep drawing, Tool steel, surface preparation, Friction
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8883ISBN: 978-91-7063-403-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-8883DiVA: diva2:462761
Presentation
2012-01-13, 21A342, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 09:12 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-12-20 Created: 2011-12-08 Last updated: 2014-09-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Measurement and mechanisms of galling in sheet metal forming: A literature review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and mechanisms of galling in sheet metal forming: A literature review
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8967 (URN)
Available from: 2011-12-19 Created: 2011-12-19 Last updated: 2014-09-04Bibliographically approved
2. Tool steel and contact geometry influence on galling initiation in lubricated sliding on carbon steel sheets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tool steel and contact geometry influence on galling initiation in lubricated sliding on carbon steel sheets
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Tooling Conference, Vol 1, 2009, 189-198 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In sheet metal forming operations, sliding contact may cause adhesive wear of sheet materials with transfer of worn material to the tool surface, a wear damage process named galling. It results in loss of product quality, process performance and tool lifetime. The industrial experience of the optimal combination of sheet metal grades, tool steel grades, tool geometry and lubrication to increase the tool performance is not clearly understood. Accordingly, simulation of wear of sheet metal forming operation in laboratory conditions in order to quantify tendency of a tool material to galling is not a trivial problem neither. In the present study two tool steel grades, an ESR made 8%Cr cold work tool steel and a superior PM made high speed steel, were tested with different test tool geometries to obtain different contact pressure conditions. A slider on flat sheet (SOFS) test equipment was utilized, where a disc made of tool steel was slid along lubricated carbon steel sheets of different strengths. The sliding tool discs were prepared so that one elliptical and two linear contacts were simulated, in order to study their influence on distance to galling initiation. Normal and friction force data were collected, galling initiation was detected by analysis of the friction curve and verified by SEM and OP analysis of the tool surfaces and sheet sliding tracks. It was found that under selected test conditions, galling initiation was remarkably dependent on tool material as well as geometry.

Keyword
Galling, sheet metal forming, wear, tool steel
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8968 (URN)
Conference
The 8th International Tooling Conference, June 4th 2009, Aachen
Available from: 2011-12-19 Created: 2011-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. The effect of grinding and polishing procedure of tool steels in sheet metal forming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of grinding and polishing procedure of tool steels in sheet metal forming
2010 (English)In: ICTPM 2010, 2010, 603-612 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The surface finish of tools in sheet metal forming has a large influence on the performance of the forming tool. Galling, concern of wear in sheet metal forming, is a severe form of adhesive wear where sheet material is transferred on to the tool surface. By polishing the tools to a fine surface finish, material pick-up has traditionally been reduced, but some surface preparations withstand adhesive wear better. To investigate the effect on galling performance of different surface preparations lubricated tests have been performed using a strip reduction rig. Two different tool materials, Vancron 40 and Vanadis 6 and up to ten different grinding and polishing treatments were tested against AISI 316 stainless steel. The tests showed that an optimum surface preparation might be found at the transition between abrasive and adhesive wear.

Keyword
galling, sheet metal forming, wear, sheet surface treatment
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8969 (URN)
Conference
The 4th International Conference on Tribology in Manufacturing Processes, June 15th 2010, Nice
Available from: 2011-12-19 Created: 2011-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Study of the influence of contact geometry and contact pressure on sliding distance to galling in the Slider-On-Flat-Surface wear tester
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the influence of contact geometry and contact pressure on sliding distance to galling in the Slider-On-Flat-Surface wear tester
2013 (English)In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 56, no 6, 1137-1145 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the major causes of tool failure in sheet metal forming is wear in the form of galling. Galling is gradual buildup of adhered sheet material on the tool and leads to unacceptable scratches on the sheet surface and to components that fail to meet tolerances. Because it is difficult to reproduce operational and interactional conditions in laboratory test equipments it is hard to test, model, and predict galling initiation.Here the authors examine how changes from elliptical to line contact geometry influenced galling initiation under dry sliding by using a slider-on-flat surface (SOFS) wear tester. A micro clean tool steel was tested against ferritic low-strength and martensitic high-strength steel sheets.The sliding distance to galling initiation was extracted from friction data and verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. The presence of adhesive wear on worn tools after completed tests was used as a criterion. Experimental results showed that the elliptical contact causes galling quicker than the line contact.Applicability of experimental results depends on the relevance of test conditions, so contact pressures calculated for the described tests were compared to calculated contact pressures in a semi-industrial U-bending test and to literature data relevant to industrial applications. Good agreement between values observed for SOFS and for most selected industrial applications was found, which assume that contact pressures typical for most common industrial applications can be successfully simulated by selection of tool geometry and normal load in the SOFS tester.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
galling, wear, sheet metal forming, friction
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-8970 (URN)10.1080/10402004.2013.827766 (DOI)000324614500023 ()
Available from: 2011-12-19 Created: 2011-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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