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Investigation of the surface topographical differences between the Cross Direction and the Machine Direction for newspaper and paperboard
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Optical on-line measurements in industry)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Optical on-line measurements in industry)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Optical on-line measurements in industry)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. (Optical on-line measurements in industry)
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2011 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 4, 468-475 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Paper and paperboard surface quality is constantly being improved by the industry. This improvement work deals with the essential fact that the surface topography must be measured, both in relation to offline and online measurements for the manufactured products. Most measurements relating to surface topography (especially online) are performed either in the machine direction (MD) or in the cross direction (CD). It has been the opinion of SCA Ortviken AB and Iggesund Paperboard AB that the surface topography amplitudes are almost always higher in the CD than in the MD, for their products which consist of newspaper and paperboard. This article aims to investigate the rela-tionship between the CD and the MD surface topography amplitudes for a wide range of spatial wavelength for both newspaper and paperboard. The tests and investiga-tions have been conducted using an FRT Microprof profilometer within the range 20 μm up to 8 mm, and the results confirm that the surface topography amplitudes are higher in the CD for most of the shorter spatial wavelength within this range. The results also show significant differences between measurements for different paper qualities, suggesting a requirement to investigate the relationship between the CD and the MD topography for all paper and paperboard qualities of interest for a paper or paperboard mill, before a decision is made in relation to a measurement method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 26, no 4, 468-475 p.
Keyword [en]
Paper surface measurement, Roughness measurement, Surface topography, Optical measurement, spectral analysis, Cross Direction (CD), Machine Direction (MD), Paperboard, Newspaper
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15060ISI: 000298868000014Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84855528544Local ID: STCOAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-15060DiVA: diva2:462137
Available from: 2011-12-11 Created: 2011-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Online Surface Topography Characterization Technique for Paper and Paperboard using Line of Light Triangulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Surface Topography Characterization Technique for Paper and Paperboard using Line of Light Triangulation
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic) [Artistic work]
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2012. 64 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 75
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15967 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-87103-02-5 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Presentation
2012-02-09, O102, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-29 Created: 2012-02-29 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
2. Online optical method for real-time surface measurement using line-of-light triangulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online optical method for real-time surface measurement using line-of-light triangulation
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Real time paper surface-web measurement is one of the challenging research fields. The traditional laboratory method has many limitations and is unable to measure the entire tambour during the manufacturing process. It has been necessary to develop an online technique that could measure the surface topography in real time. An optical technique was developed, based on laser triangulation, and is applied to develop a new prototype device, which characterizes high speed paper-web surfaces over a wide scale of spatial wavelengths spectrum and computes the surface roughness in real time. The used multi channel pulsed laser diode, source of illumination onto the paper-web, is of benefit due to its low coherence length and is capable to deliver a powerful burst of light beam over a 1 µs duration, which delivers energy of 100 µJ per pulse. The short exposure time avoids blurriness in the acquired images which could possible due to the high speed and vibrations on the paper-web.

The laser beam is shaped into a narrow line-of-light using cylindrical lenses and is projected onto a paper-web surface, which covers a physical length of about 210 mm. The created line-of-light cross section full width at half maximum, FWHM Gaussian distribution, is 2-3 pixels on the image. The line-of-light is projected onto the paper-web perpendicular to the plane of the surface. The low angled, low specular, reduced coherence length, scattered reflected laser line is captured by the 3 CCD sensors, which are synchronized with the laser source. The low specular light ensures to avoid saturation of the imaging sensors if the surface is very smooth, and obliquely captures the z-directional fine feature of the surface.

The scattered phenomenon of the reflected light is responsible for the surface irregularity measurements. The basic image processing algorithm is applied in order to remove noise and cropped the images widthwise so that only pixels above a preset threshold gray level can be processed, which enables efficient real time measurement. The image is transformed into a 1D array using the center of gravity, COG. The accuracy and precision of the COG depends on the line-of-light FWHM, which, in turn, is responsible for the accuracy, noise and the resolution of the developed technique. The image subpixel resolution achieved is 0.01 times a pixel and uuncertainty in the raw data is 0.43 µm while it is 0.05 µm in the rms roughness.

The signal processing steps combining the B-Spline filter and the filter in the spatial frequency domain were employed in order to separate roughness, waviness, and form and position error in the raw profile. The prototype is designed to measure online surface roughness and to characterize surface in a spatial wavelength spectrum from 0.09 to 30 mm, which is extendable to any required spatial range in order to cover a wide scale surface feature such as micro roughness, macro roughness and waviness. It is proven that exploitation of a simple laser triangulation technique could lead to an improvement in the overall quality and efficiency in the paper and paperboard industries and it can also be of potential interest for the other surface characterization problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2013. 151 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 171
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20449 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-87557-17-0 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2013-12-16, L111, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-04 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved

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