Normalization of high dimensional genomics data where the distribution of the altered variables is skewed
2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 11, e27942- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Genome-wide analysis of gene expression or protein binding patterns using different array or sequencing based technologies is now routinely performed to compare different populations, such as treatment and reference groups. It is often necessary to normalize the data obtained to remove technical variation introduced in the course of conducting experimental work, but standard normalization techniques are not capable of eliminating technical bias in cases where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed, i.e. when a large fraction of the variables are either positively or negatively affected by the treatment. However, several experiments are likely to generate such skewed distributions, including ChIP-chip experiments for the study of chromatin, gene expression experiments for the study of apoptosis, and SNP-studies of copy number variation in normal and tumour tissues. A preliminary study using spike-in array data established that the capacity of an experiment to identify altered variables and generate unbiased estimates of the fold change decreases as the fraction of altered variables and the skewness increases. We propose the following work-flow for analyzing high-dimensional experiments with regions of altered variables: (1) Pre-process raw data using one of the standard normalization techniques. (2) Investigate if the distribution of the altered variables is skewed. (3) If the distribution is not believed to be skewed, no additional normalization is needed. Otherwise, re-normalize the data using a novel HMM-assisted normalization procedure. (4) Perform downstream analysis. Here, ChIP-chip data and simulated data were used to evaluate the performance of the work-flow. It was found that skewed distributions can be detected by using the novel DSE-test (Detection of Skewed Experiments). Furthermore, applying the HMM-assisted normalization to experiments where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed results in considerably higher sensitivity and lower bias than can be attained using standard and invariant normalization methods.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 6, no 11, e27942- p.
skewness, normalization, genomics, array analysis, epigenetics
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Bioinformatics (Computational Biology) Genetics
Research subject biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50313DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027942ISI: 000297792400024PubMedID: 22132175OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-50313DiVA: diva2:462049