Two Types of Fibrils in ATTR Amyloidosis: Implications for Clinical Phenotype and Treatment Outcome
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Systemic amyloidoses are a group of lethal diseases where proteins aggregate into fibrillar structures, called amyloid fibrils, that deposits throughout the body. Transthyretin (TTR) causes one type of amyloidosis, in which the aggregates mainly infiltrate nervous and cardiac tissue. Almost a hundred different mutations in the TTR gene are known to trigger the disease, but wild-type (wt) TTR is also incorporated into the fibrils, and may alone form amyloid. Patients with the TTRV30M mutation show, for unknown reasons, two clinical phenotypes. Some have an early onset of disease without cardiomyopathy while others have a late onset and cardiomyopathy. It has previously been described that amyloid fibrils formed from TTRV30M can have two different compositions; either with truncated molecules beside full-length TTR (type A) or only-full-length molecules (type B). In this thesis, the clinical importance of the two types of amyloid fibrils was investigated.
We found that the fibril composition types are correlated to the two clinical phenotypes seen among TTRV30M patients, with type A fibrils present in late onset patients and type B fibrils in early onset patients.
The only treatment for hereditary TTR amyloidosis has been liver transplantation, whereby the liver producing the mutant TTR is replaced by an organ only producing wt protein. However, in some patients, cardiac symptoms progress post-transplantationally. We demonstrated that the propensity to incorporate wtTTR differs between fibril types and tissue types in TTRV30M patients, with cardiac amyloid of type A having the highest tendency. This offers an explanation to why particularly cardiac amyloidosis develops after transplantation, and suggests which patients that are at risk for such development.
By examining patients with other mutations than TTRV30M, we showed that, in contrast to the general belief, a fibril composition with truncated TTR is very common and might even be the general rule. This may explain why TTRV30M patients often have a better outcome after liver transplantation than patients with other mutations.
In conclusion, this thesis has contributed with one piece to the puzzle of understanding the differences in clinical phenotype and treatment response between TTR amyloidosis patients, by demonstrating corresponding differences at a molecular level.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 65 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 727
amyloid, transthyretin, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, TTRV30M, non-TTRV30M, wild-type, liver transplantation, cardiomyopathy, fibril composition
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Cell and Molecular Biology Other Basic Medicine Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Research subject Biochemistry; Biology with specialization in Molecular Biology; Experimental Pathology; Medical Biochemistry; Molecular Biology; Pathology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160980ISBN: 978-91-554-8234-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-160980DiVA: diva2:459640
2012-01-13, Rudbecksalen, Rudbecklaboratoriet, Dag Hammarskjöldsv 20, Uppsala, 13:13 (Swedish)
Hammarström, Per, Professor
Westermark, Per, Professor
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