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Criteria for Machinability Evaluation of Compacted Graphite Iron Materials: Design and Production Planning Perspective on Cylinder Block Manufacturing
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. (Maskin och processteknologi, Machine and process technology)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish truck industry is looking for new material solutions to achieve lighter engines with increased strength to meet customer demands and to fulfil the new regulations for more environmentally friendly trucks. This could be achieved by increasing the peak pressure in the cylinders. Consequently, a more efficient combustion is obtained and the exhaust lowered. This, however, exposes the engine to higher loads and material physical properties must therefore be enhanced. One material that could meet these demands is Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI). Its mechanical and physical properties make it ideal as cylinder block material, though there are drawbacks concerning its machinability as compared to other materials that are commonly used for the same purpose. Knowledge about machining of the material and its machinability is consequently inadequate.

The main goal of this thesis is to identify and investigate the effect of the major factors and their individual contributions on CGI machining process behaviour. When the relationship between the fundamental features; machinability, material microstructure, and material physical properties, are revealed, the CGI material can be optimized, both regarding the manufacturing process and design requirements. The basic understanding of this is developed mainly through experimental analysis as, e.g., machining experiments and material characterization.

The machining model presented in this thesis demonstrates the influence of material and process parameters on CGI machinability. It highlights machinability from both design and production planning perspectives. Another important objective of the thesis is an inverse thermo−mechanical FE model for intermittent machining of CGI. Here, experimental results obtained from a developed simulated milling method are used as input data, both to calibrate and validate the model. With these models, a deeper understanding is obtained regarding the way to achieve a stable process, which is the basis for future optimization procedures. The models can therefore be used as a foundation for the optimization of CGI component manufacturing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xiii, 75 p.
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 2011-10
Keyword [en]
Metal Cutting, Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI), Machinability, Design of Experiments (DoE), Inverse Finite Element (FE) Modelling, Simulated Milling Method
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48430ISBN: 978-91-7501-159-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-48430DiVA: diva2:457571
Public defence
2011-12-02, F3, Lindstedtsväg 26, KTH, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
MERA - OPTIMA CGIFFI - OPTIMA phase two
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20111121

Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-18 Last updated: 2017-05-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effect of carbide promoting elements on CGI material processing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of carbide promoting elements on CGI material processing
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the CIRP 2nd International Conference Process Machine Interactions, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to environmental regulations, the industry uses both new and recycled material for the casting of new components. In the heavy truck industry, great effort is put into the purchasing of “good quality” recycled/scrap material to be used for casting CGI (compacted graphite iron) cylinder blocks and cylinder heads. Scrap material with a large concentration of carbide promoting elements reduces the machinability drastically due to carbides. The effect of carbide promoting elements on CGI machinability needs to be investigated in order to produce high quality engine components in an economically satisfactory way. This study presents the effect of the carbide promoting elements of chromium, manganese and molybdenum on CGI material processing. 17 unique CGI materials with different material chemical composition were studied. Material testing, milling experiments and image analysis of microstructure were performed on all materials, mapping the process machine interaction. The results show that all carbide promoting elements, but especially chromium, reduce the tool life in CGI milling. The results also illustrate the interaction between concentration of carbide promoting elements, material strength and machinability.

Keyword
Milling, Carbides, Carbide Promoting Elements, Scrap Material, compacted
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27734 (URN)978-0-9866331-0-2 (ISBN)
Conference
CIRP 2nd International Conference on Process Machine Interactions, Vancouver
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note
QC 20110105Available from: 2010-12-21 Created: 2010-12-21 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
2. The Effect of Interlamellar Distance in Pearlite on CGI Machining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Interlamellar Distance in Pearlite on CGI Machining
2009 (English)In: ICME 2009: International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, 2009, 33-44 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Swedish truck industry is investigating the possibilityfor implementing the use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) in theirheavy duty diesel engines. Compared to the alloyed gray iron usedtoday, CGI has superior mechanical properties but not as goodmachinability. Another issue that needs to be addressed whenimplementing CGI is the inhomogeneous microstructure when thecast component has different section thicknesses, as in cylinderblocks. Thinner sections results in finer pearlite, in the material, withhigher strength. Therefore an investigation on its influence onmachinability was needed. This paper focuses on the effect thatinterlamellar distance in pearlite has on CGI machinability andmaterial physical properties. The effect of pearlite content andnodularity is also examined. The results showed that interlamellardistance in pearlite did not have as large effect on the materialphysical properties or machinability as pearlite content. The paperalso shows the difficulties of obtaining a homogeneousmicrostructure in inhomogeneous workpieces.

Series
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 2070-3740 ; 41
Keyword
Compacted graphite iron (CGI), machinability, microstructure, milling, interlamellar distance in pearlite
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28205 (URN)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note
QC 20110112Available from: 2011-01-11 Created: 2011-01-11 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
3. Analysis of compacted graphite iron machining by investigation of tool temperature and cutting force
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of compacted graphite iron machining by investigation of tool temperature and cutting force
2008 (English)In: 1st International Conference on Process Machine Interactions: Hannover, Germany, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Series
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 08-08
Keyword
Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI), cutting temperature, nodularity, FEM, cutting force
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25921 (URN)978-3-939026-95-2 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
4. Investigation of the Effect of Microstructures on CGI Machining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of the Effect of Microstructures on CGI Machining
2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of microstructures on CGI machining and to compare to gray iron reference material. Special designed workpieces, to reproduce real situations, were machined in face milling. The project planning was based on factorial analysis of design of experiments. The results showed that the strongest parameter affecting tool life is the pearlite content. Furthermore it is clear that due to imprecision of manufacturing process it is difficult to obtain test specimens with homogenous microstructures and corresponding varying mechanical properties, when the specimen presents a complex geometrical form. Thin sections found in walls tend to have higher nodularity, resulting in spherical graphite. To refine the investigation of the effect of microstructures on CGI machining it would be preferred to use test specimens without holes or slots to minimise noise in the factor analysis.

Series
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 07-06
Keyword
Microstructure, CGI, face milling, machinability, mechanical properties, section effect, cutting forces, tool wear
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25918 (URN)
Conference
Swedish Production Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2007
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
5. Investigation of tool wear mechanisms in CGI machining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of tool wear mechanisms in CGI machining
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems, ISSN 1753-1039, Vol. 4, no 1, 3-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the tool wear, including wear mechanisms on coated cemented carbide inserts were investigated in the turning of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) materials with varying nodularity. The results showed that increasing nodularity, in the range of 5–62%, affects wear at moderate and high cutting speeds without having the same impact at lower cutting speeds. A small difference in nodularity, in the lower range, such as an increase from 5% to 20%, has a more significant impact on wear than an increase from 20% to 62%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience publisher, 2011
Keyword
CGI machining, compacted graphite iron, turning, tool wear mechanisms, coated cemented carbides, nodularity, cutting speeds
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
SRA - Production
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28344 (URN)10.1504/IJMMS.2011.037996 (DOI)2-s2.0-78651277529 (Scopus ID)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note
QC 20110114Available from: 2011-01-13 Created: 2011-01-13 Last updated: 2012-06-19Bibliographically approved

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