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Warhead penetration in concrete protective structures
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The analysis of penetration of warheads in concrete protective structures is an important part of the study of weapon effects on protective structures. This type of analysis requires that the design load in the form of a warhead is determined, and its characteristic and performance within a protective structure is known. Constitutive equations for concrete subjected to weapon effects have been a major area of interest for a long time, and several material models for concrete behaviour are developed. However, it is not until recent years that it has been possible to use finite element (FE) analyses to simulate the behaviour of concrete targets during projectile penetration with acceptable results. The reason for this is a combination of several factors, e.g. development of suitable material models for concrete, enhancement of numerical methodology and affordable high capacity computer systems. Furthermore, warhead penetration has primary been of interest for the armed forces and military industry, with a large part of the conducted research being classified during considerable time. The theoretical bases for concrete material behaviour and modelling with respect to FE analyses of projectile penetration are treated in the thesis.

The development of weapons and fortifications are briefly discussed in the thesis. Warheads may be delivered onto a protective structure by several means, e.g. artillery, missiles or aerial bombing, and two typical warhead types were used within the study. These warhead types were artillery shells and unitary penetration bombs for the use against hardened targets, with penetration data for the later warhead type almost non-existing in the literature. The penetration of warheads in concrete protective structures was therefore studied through a combination of experimental work, empirical penetration modelling and FE analyses to enhance the understanding of the penetration phenomenon. The experimental data was used for evaluation of empirical equations for concrete penetration and FE analyses of concrete penetration, and the use of these methods to predict warhead penetration in protective structures are discussed within the thesis.

The use of high performance concrete increased the penetration resistance of concrete targets, and the formation of front and back face craters were prevented with the use of heavily reinforced normal strength concrete (NSC) for the targets. In addition, the penetration depths were reduced in the heavily reinforced NSC. The evaluated existing empirical penetration models did not predict the behaviour of the model scaled hardened buried target penetrators in concrete structures with acceptable accuracy. One of the empirical penetration models was modified to better describe the performance of these penetrators in concrete protective structures. The FE analyses of NSC gave reasonable results for all simulation cases, with the best results obtained for normal impact conditions of the penetrators.

Abstract [sv]

Analyser avseende stridsdelars penetration i skyddskonstruktioner av betong viktigt för studier av vapenverkan mot skyddskonstruktioner. Dessa analyser förutsätter att dimensionerande last i form av stridsdel bestäms, samt att dess karakteristik och verkan mot skyddskonstruktioner är kända. Konstitutiva modeller för betong utsatta för vapenverkan har varit av stort intresse under en lång tid och ett flertal materialmodeller har utvecklats. Det är emellertid först på senare år som det varit möjligt att använda finita element (FE) analyser for att simulera beteendet för betongmål vid projektilpenetration med acceptabla resultat. Anledningen till detta kan tillskrivas kombinationen av ett flertal faktorer, t ex utvecklingen av lämpliga materialmodeller, förbättringar av numerisk metodik och utvecklingen av kostnadseffektiva beräkningsdatorer. Penetration av stridsdelar har dessutom i huvudsak varit av intresse för militären och försvarsindustrin, vilket har resulterat i att en stor del av den bedrivna forskningen har varit hemligstämplad under lång tid. Grunderna avseende betongs materialbeteende och beskrivning av detta med avseende på FE-analyser av projektilpenetration behandlas i denna licentiatuppsats.

Den fortifikatoriska utvecklingen och utvecklingen av vapen diskuteras kortfattad i uppsatsen. Ett flertal olika typer av stridsdelar är av intresse avseende verkan mot skyddskonstruktioner, t ex artillerigranater, missiler eller flygbomber. I denna studie beaktades två typiska stridsdelar, artillerigranater och penetrerande bomber. De senare är specifikt konstruerade för användande mot skyddskonstruktioner och företrädesvis mot betongkonstruktioner. Det visade sig dessutom att data avseende penetration i betong för denna typ av penetrerande stridsdelar i stort sett inte var publicerade. Penetration av stridsdelar i betong studerades därför med en kombination av experimentella metoder, empiriska penetrationsmodeller och FE-analyser för att öka förståelsen för problemställningen. De experimentella modellresultaten användes för att utvärdera både de empiriska penetrationsmodellerna och FE-analyserna avseende betongpenetration, med båda metodernas användande diskuterat i uppsatsen.

Användandet av högpresterande betong ökade penetrationsmotståndet för betongmålen i jämförelse med standardbetongmålen. Det var även möjligt att förhindra kraterbildningen på fram- och baksidan av de kraftigt armerande standardbetongmålen, detta medförde även en reducerad penetration för projektilerna i målen. De existerande empiriska penetrationsmodellerna kunde inte förutsäga penetrationen av modellprojektilerna i betongmålen med godtagbara resultat. Istället vidareutvecklades en av dessa modeller för att bättre beskriva denna typ av penetrerande stridsdelar i skyddskonstruktioner av betong. Finita elementanalyserna av standardbetongmålen visade sig ge ett rimligt beteende för alla analyserade modeller, med de bästa resultaten erhållna för vinkelrätt anslag för de modellprojektilerna av de penetrerande stridsdelarna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xvi, 126 p.
Series
Trita-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 109
Keyword [en]
Warhead penetration, FE analysis, experiment, material modelling, fortifications
Keyword [sv]
Stridsdelspenetration, FE-analyser, experiment, materialmodellering, fortifikationer
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-48009DiVA: diva2:456596
Presentation
2011-12-09, B26, KTH, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111116Available from: 2011-11-16 Created: 2011-11-15 Last updated: 2011-11-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Modelling of concrete perforation:  
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of concrete perforation:  
2002 (English)In: Seventh international conference on structures under shock and impact: SUSI VII / [ed] N. Jones, C.A. Brebbia, A.M. Rajendran, Southampton: WIT Press , 2002, 79-90 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Southampton: WIT Press, 2002
Keyword
Concrete, perforation, FE analysis, material modelling
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47833 (URN)1-85312-911-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Seventh international conference on structures under shock and impact, May 2002, Montreal
Note
QC 20111116Available from: 2011-11-14 Created: 2011-11-14 Last updated: 2011-11-16Bibliographically approved
2. 3D Simulations of concrete penetration using SPH formulation and the RHT material model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Simulations of concrete penetration using SPH formulation and the RHT material model
2004 (English)In: Eighth international conference on structures under shock and impact: SUSI VIII / [ed] N. Jones, C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press: Southampton , 2004, 211-220 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WIT Press: Southampton, 2004
Series
Structures and materials, ISSN 1462-6055
Keyword
Concrete, penetration, FE analysis, material modelling
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47837 (URN)000223144500021 ()1-85312-706-X (ISBN)
Conference
Eighth international conference on structures under shock and impact, March 2004, Crete
Note
QC 20111116Available from: 2011-11-14 Created: 2011-11-14 Last updated: 2011-11-16Bibliographically approved
3. Air-blast-loaded, high-strength concrete beams. Part II: Numerical non-linear analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air-blast-loaded, high-strength concrete beams. Part II: Numerical non-linear analysis
2010 (English)In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, Vol. 62, no 4, 235-242 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The results from this investigation demonstrate the ability to perform numerical simulations of dynamic structural response of concrete elements subjected to air blast loading. Beams of both high-strength concrete (HSC) and normal-strength concrete (NSC) were studied. Also beams with two concrete layers of different strength were simulated. It is of particular interest to investigate the use of material models for implementation with software for the explicit analysis of non-linear dynamic events. The influences of concrete strength, amounts of reinforcement, the bond between concrete and reinforcement, bi-linear strain softening of concrete, the strain rate dependence of reinforcement and boundary conditions at the supports were studied. The simulations were performed with the text data as reference through comparison between numerical examples and experimental test results. It was possible numerically to analyse the dynamic behaviour of beams tested in situ and to describe the observed failure modes of these beams. The analysis tool will be used for evaluating the dynamic strength of future protective structures of HSC, possibly with parts consisting of NSC elements.

Keyword
Concrete, reinforced concrete, FE analysis, non-linear analysis
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-19341 (URN)10.1680/macr.2010.62.4.235 (DOI)000276002800001 ()2-s2.0-77952905249 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2012-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. Experiments on penetration of ogive nosed penetrators in normal strength and high performance concrete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiments on penetration of ogive nosed penetrators in normal strength and high performance concrete
(English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
Concrete structures, penetration, hardened targets, high performance concrete, reinforced concrete
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47839 (URN)
Note
QS 2011 QS 20120326Available from: 2011-11-14 Created: 2011-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Deep Penetration in Unreinforced and Reinforced Concrete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Deep Penetration in Unreinforced and Reinforced Concrete
2011 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 44, 87-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Penetration and perforation of concrete targets are studied by the use of numerical simulations to enhance the understanding of the penetration phenomenon. Comparisons were made with test results obtained for both reinforced and unreinforced 48.0 MPa normal strength concrete. The studied projectiles were made as generic models of penetrators for buried hardened target defeat. Varying impact velocities and angles for the penetrators were investigated. The simulations gave reasonable results for the different simulation cases, with the best results were obtained for reinforced concrete targets.

Keyword
Computational mechanics, concrete structures, protective structures, reinforced concrete
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47842 (URN)
External cooperation:
Note

QC 20160901

Available from: 2011-11-14 Created: 2011-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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